(48 ° N. lat. 33° E. long.) was elaborately surveyed by Paul Passalsky."
The extreme values observed by him differed, the declination by
282° 40', the inclination by 41° 53', horizontal force by 0-658, and
vertical force by 1-358. At one spotadifference of II6°§ was observed
between the declinations at two positions only 42 metres apart.
In cases such as the last mentioned, the source of disturbance
comes presumably very near the surface. It is improbable that any
such enormously rapid changes of declination can be experienced
anywhere at the surface of a deep ocean. But in shallow water
disturbances of a not very inferior order of magnitude have been
met with. Possibly the most outstanding case known is that of an
area, about 3 m. long by Ii m. at its widest, near Port Walcott, off
the N.W. Australian coast. The results of a minute survey made
here by H.M.S. “ Penguin ” have been discussed by Captain E. W.
Creak.” Within the narrow area specified, declination varied from
26° W. to 56° E., and inclination from 50° to nearly 80°, the observations
being taken some 80 ft. above sea bottom. Another noteworthy
case, though hardly comparable with the above, is that of
East Loch Roag at Lewis in the Hebrides. A survey by H.M.S.
“ Research ” in water about 100 ft. deep-discussed by Admiral
A. M. Field"-showed a range of 11° in declination. The largest
observed disturbances in horizontal and vertical force were of the
order 0-02 and 0-05 C.G.S. respectively. An interesting feature in
this case was that vertical force was reduced, there being a well marked
valley line.

In some instances regional magnetic disturbances have been found to be associated with geodetic anomalies. This is true of an elongated area including Moscow, where observations were taken by Fritsche."' Again, Eschenhagen 7° detected magnetic anomalies in an area including the Harz Mountains in Germany, where defections of the plumb line from the normal had been observed. He found a magnetic ridge line running approximately parallel to the line of no deflection of the plumb line.

§ 46. A question of interest, about which however not very much is known, is the effect of local disturbance on secular change and on the diurnal inequality. The determination of secular change in a highly disturbed locality is difficult, because an unintentional slight change in the spot where the observations are made may wholly falsify the conclusions drawn. When the disturbed area is very limited in extent, the magnetic field may reasonably be regarded as composed of the normal field that would have existed in the absence of local disturbance, plus a disturbance field arising from magnetic material which approaches nearly if not quite to the surface. Even if no sensible change takes place in the disturbance field, one would hardly expect the secular change to be wholly normal. The changes in the rectangular components of the force may possibly be

-fm ""'" (n-m)(n— -)f'“'"'2

Hn"(I pe) H ' 2(2n' x L 11 'l' - . - 9

where n and m denote any positive integers, m being not greater than n. Then denoting the earth's radius by R, we have V/R = E (R/r)”+'[H'§ ', (gf: cos ml -I-h§ , " sin m))] -I-E(r/R)"[HQ' (gli cos m>-|-h "{, sin m>)],

where E denotes summation of m from o to n, followed by summation of n from 0 to oo. In this equation 82", &c. are constants, those with positive suffixes being what are generally termed Gaussian constants. The series with negative powers of r answers to forces with a source internal to the earth, the series with positive powers to forces with an external source. Gauss found that forces of the latter class, if existent, were very small, and they are usually left out of account. There are three Gaussian constants of the first order, g1°, gli, hil, five of the second order, seven of the third, and so on. The coefficient of a Gaussian constant of the 11.* order is a spherical harmonic of the n"' degree. If R be taken as unit length, as is not infrequent, the first order terms are given by V1= r'“[g1° sin I+ (gli cos X-I-hi* sin X) cos ll. The earth is in reality a spheroid, and in his elaborate work on the subject ]. C. Adams 78 develops the treatment appropriate to this case. Here we shall as usual treat it as spherical. We then have for the components of the force at the surface X = -R '1(I -p2)l (dV/dp) towards the astronomical north, Y= -R"(I -u')'f(dV/dk), . .., . West.

Z = -dV/dr vertically downwards.

Supposing the Gaussian constants known, the above formulae would give the force all over the earth's surface. To determine the Gaussian constants we proceed of course in the reverse direction, equating the observed values of the force components to the theoretical values involving g', {', &c. If we knew the values of the component forces at regularly distributed stations all over the earth's surface, we could determine each Gaussian constant independently of the others. Our knowledge however of large regions, especially in the Arctic and Antarctic, is very scanty, and in practice recourse is had to methods in which the constants are not determined independently. The consequence is unfortunately that the values found for some of the constants, even amongst the lower orders, depend very sensibly on how large a portion of the polar regions is omitted from the TABLE XLIV.-Gaussian Constants of the First Order., the same as at a neighbouring undisturbed station, ' 1329 but this will not give the same change in declination E, .man 1830 1345 1380 1385 1835 1835 and ll';Cl";T1U0gl; In Eben Qasfhsf tl“ie;l1;'f€3l Cin* Petersen. Gauss. Adams. Adams. Neumayer. Schmidt. Fritsche. equa 1 y, e esump io is a s e ebginlirfdgii

dixsiiuibhlfirdguollf Clfgfliziiriiviilebewieniihprpbii 31° 'l' 52007 'l"32348 +~32187 +-31684 -I-~31572 +-31735 +~31635 the diurnal inequality td be due to the direct in- of +°o2835 +'03HI +'02778 +'02427 +'0248é +°02356 +'°2414 fluence of electric currents in the upper atmo- h -'06OI1 —06246 1-°O5783 -~o6o3O -'0602 "05984 “'°59'4. sphere, the declination change will represent the action of the component of a force of given magnitude which is perpendicular to the position of the compass needle. But when ibcal disturbance exists, the direction of the needle and the intensity of the controlling field are both altered by the local disturbance, so it would appear natural for the declination changes to be influenced also. This conclusion seems borne out by observations made by Passalsky” at Krivoi Rog, which showed diurnal inequalities differing notably from those experienced at the same time at Odessa, the nearest magnetic observatory. One station where the horizontal force was abnormally low gave a diurnal range of declination four times that at Odessa; on the other hand, the range of the horizontal force was apparently reduced. It would be unsafe to draw general conclusions from observations at two or three stations, and much completer information is wanted, but it is obviously desirable to avoid local disturbance when selecting a site for a magnetic observatory, assuming one's object is to obtain data reasonably applicable to a large area. In the case of the older observatories this consideration seems sometimes to have been lost sight of. At Mauritius, for instance, inside of a circle of only 56 ft. radius, having for centre the declination pillar of the absolute magnetic hut of the Royal Alfred Observatory, T. F. Claxton" found that the declination varied from 4° 56" to 13° 45' W., the inclination from 50° 21' to 58° 34' S., and the horizontal force from 0-197 to 0'244 C.G.S. At one spot he found an alteration of 1% in the declination when the magnet was lowered from 4 ft. above the ground to 2. Disturbances of this order could hardly escape even a rough investigation of the site.

§ 47. If we assume the magnetic force on the earth's surface derivable from a potential V, we can express V as the sum of two Gaussian series of solid spherical harmonics, one containing nega-Potential tive, the other positive integral powers of the radius and Con- vector r from the earth's centre. Let A denote east lfdnfs- longitude from Greenwich, and let p=cos(%-rr-l), where l is latitude; and also let

calculations, and on the number of the constants of the higher orders which are retained.

Table XLIV. gives the values obtained for the Gaussian constants of the first order in some of the best-known computations, as collected by W. G. Adams.”

§ 48. Allowance must be made for the difference in the epochs, and for the fact that the number of constants assumed to be worth retaining was different in each case. Gauss, for instance, assumed 24 constants sufficient, whilst in obtaining the results given in the table ]. C. Adams retained 48. Some idea of the uncertainty thus arising may be derived from the fact that when Adams assumed 24 constants sufficient, he got instead of the values in the table the following 2gi°

gil hil

1842-1 845 -l—32 1 73 +-02833 » - -05820

1880 +°3I6II +-02470 —06071

Some of the higher constants were relatively much more affected. Thus, on the hypotheses of 48 and of 24 constants respectively, the values obtained for g2° in 1842-1845 were -'OOIZ7 and —00057, and those obtained for hs* in 188O were +-00748 and +-00573. It must also be remembered that these values assume that the series in positive powers of r, with coefficients having negative suffixes, is absolutely non-existent. If this be not assumed, then in any equation determine X or Y, gf' must be replaced by gQ'+g1", ,, and in any equation determining Z by gZ-{n/ (n-I-1)} gZ, "; similar remarks apply to hz, ” and hL", ,. It is thus theoretically possible to check the truth of the assumption that the positive power series is non-existent by comparing the values obtained for gl” and hj, ” from the X and Y or from the Z equations, when gl", and hZ', , are assumed zero. If the values so found differ, values can be found for g'L', , and kj; which will harmonize the two sets of equations. Adams gives the values obtained from the'X, Y and the Z equations separately for the