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MAHOMMEDAN RELIGION


Akhnasites.—A section of the Tha‘āliba not so strict in treatment of those who fear to fight for Islam.

Ash‘arites.—Followers of Ash‘arī (q.v.) who are counted by Shahrastānī among the Ṣifātites.

Aṭrāfites.—A division of the ‘Ajārida who agree with the Ḥamzites except that they excuse the lower classes for inaction when they are ignorant of the law.

Azraqites.—Khārijites who followed al-Azraq in the days of Ibn Zubair. They held ‘Ali to be an unbeliever; those who did not fight were unbelievers; the children of unbelievers were to be put to death and went to hell. Sin is unbelief.

Bahshamites.—Mu‘tazilites akin to the Jubbā‘ites.

Baihasites.—Khārijites, followers of Abu Baihas ul-Haitham, who was put to death by the caliph Walīd. They asserted the necessity of knowledge for religion.

Bāqirites.—Shi‘ites who followed Abū Ja‘far ul-Bāqir, the fifth imām, and looked for his return.

Bāṭinites.—Isma‘ilites, so called because they believe that every external has an internal (bātin), and every passage in the Koran has an allegoric meaning.

Bishrites.—Mu‘tazilites, followers of Bishr ibn Mu‘tamir, one of the most learned men of his party. His teaching was philosophical and was distinguished by his doctrine of “origination” (tawallud).

Bunānites.—Kaisānites, followers of Bunān ibn Sim‘ān un-Nahdī, who claimed that the imāmate passed from Abū Hāshim to himself and that he had also acquired the divine element of ‘Alī.

Butrites.—Zaidites, followers of Kathīr un-Nawā ul-Abtar, who agreed with the Suleimanites (Sulaimānites) except that he suspended judgment as to whether Othmān was a believer or not.

Ḍirārites.—Jabarites who empty God of his attributes, and assert that man has a sixth sense by which he will see God on the day of resurrection. The actions of man are “created” and acquired by him. A caliph need not be chosen from the Koreish.

Ghāliites (Ghulā) are the extreme Shi‘ites (q.v.) in ascribing deity to the imāms. Their heresies are said to be four in number: (1) Making God resemble man, (2) ascribing change of mind to God, (3) looking for the return of the imām, (4) metempsychosis. They are divided by Shahrastānī into ten classes.

Ghassānites.—Murjiites, followers of Ghassān ibn ul-Kufī, who say that faith consists of knowledge of God, his apostle, and the Koran in general not in detail, and that faith increases but is not diminished.

Ḥabities = Ḥāyitites (below).

Ḥadathites (Ḥudabites) are Mu‘tazilites, followers of Faḍl ibn ul-Ḥadathī, who agreed with the Ḥāyitites (below).

Ḥafṣites.—Ibāḍites, followers of Ḥafṣ ibn abī-l-Miqdām, who distinguished between idolatry (shirk) and unbelief (kufr).

Ḥamzites.—‘Ajārida, followers of Hamza ibn Adrak in Sijistān. They agree with the Maimūnites, but condemn the children of unbelievers to hell.

Ḥārithites.—Ibāḍites who differ from others in holding the Mu‘tazilite doctrine of free-will.

Ḥarūrites.—A name given to the first Khārijites, who rebelled against ‘Āli, and met in Ḥarūra near Kufa.

Hāshimites.—Shi‘ites who supported Abū Hāshim, son of Mahommed ibn ul-Ḥanafiyya, although they held that his father had gone astray.

Hāshwiites.—A party who asserted the eternity even of the letters of the Koran. They are not mentioned as a separate sect by Shahrastānī; cf. van Vloten, “Les Hachwia et Nabita,” in the Acts of the 11th Oriental Congress (Paris, 1899), pt. iii., pp. 99 sqq.

Ḥāyiṭites.—Mu‘tazilites who agreed with the Naẓẓāmites, but added three heresies of their own: (1) the divinity of the Messiah, (2) metempsychosis, (3) the interpretation of all references to the vision of God as referring to the “first Reason” or “creative Reason.”

Hishāmites.—A name given to two sects: (1) Mu‘tazilites, strong in their assertion of man’s free-will, even opposing the statement of the Koran. (2) Shi‘ites of the extreme kind, who attributed to God a body with quantities (measurements) and qualities.

Ḥudabites.—See Ḥadathites.

Hudhailites (Hodhailites).—Mu‘tazilites, followers of Abū-l Hudhail Ḥamdān, who was a leading teacher of his party and developed the philosophical side of its teaching. Ten of his main doctrines are given by Shahrastānī.

Ibaḍites.—Khārijites of moderate tendencies (see above).

Ilbāites.—Ghāliites who put ‘Alī above Mahomet and blamed the latter because he called men to himself instead of to ‘Alī.

Imāmites.—One of the chief divisions of the Shi‘ites (q.v.).

Isḥāqites.—Ghāliites agreeing with the Nuṣairites except that they incline to speak of the imams’ participation in the prophetic office rather than of their divinity.

Isma‘īlites.—This name is applied to all who consider Isma‘īl ibn Ja‘far the last imām, some believing that he did not die but will return, others, that at his death his son Mahommed became imām (see Assassins); it is also used as equivalent to the Bāṭinites.

Ithna‘asharites.—Imāmites who accept the twelve imāms (see Shi‘ites).

Jabarites.—Those who deny all actions and power to act to man and ascribe all to God (see above).

Ja‘farites.—Imāmites who carry the imāmate no farther than Ja‘far uṣ-Ṣadīq.

Jāhiẓites.—Mu‘tazilites, followers of the celebrated writer Jāhiẓ (q.v.), who indulged in philosophical speculations, believed in the eternity of matter, and was regarded as a naturalist (ṭaba‘ī) rather than a theist (allahī).

Jahmites.—Jabarites, followers of Jahm ibn Ṣafwān, who was put to death at Merv toward the close of the Omayyad period. He was extreme in his denial of the attributes of God.

Jārūdites.—Zaidites who held that Mahomet designated ‘Alī as imām, not by name but by his attributes, and that the Moslem sinned by not taking sufficient trouble to recognize these attributes.

Jubbā‘ites.—Mu‘tazilites who followed the philosophical teaching of Abu ‘Alī Mahommed ul-Jubbā‘i of Basra.

Kaisānites.—A main class of the Shi‘ites (q.v.).

Kāmilites.—Ghāliites, followers of Abū Kāmil, who condemned the companions (Anṣār) because they did not do allegiance to ‘Alī, and ‘Alī because he surrendered his claims.

Karrāmites.—Ṣifātites, followers of Ibn Karrām, who went so far as to ascribe a body to God, and assimilated his nature to human nature.

Kayyālites.—Ghāliites, followers of Ahmad ibn Kayyāl, who, after supporting a propaganda for an Aliite, claimed to be the imām himself on the ground of his power over the spheres.

Khalafites.—‘Ajārida of Kermān and Multān, who believed that God wills good and evil, but condemned the children of unbelievers to hell.

Khārijites.—One of the earliest sects of Islam (see above).

Khārimites.—‘Ajārida, agreeing mostly with the Shu‘aibites and teaching that the relation of God to a man depends on what he professes at the end of his life.

Khaṭṭābites.—Ghāliites, followers of Abū-l Khaṭṭāb, who was put to death by Ibn Mūsā at Kufa. He was a violent supporter of Ja‘far uṣ-Ṣādiq, who however disowned him.

Khayyātites.—Mu‘tazilites, followers of Abū-l Ḥosain ul-Khayyāt, a teacher in Bagdad, part of whose philosophical teaching was that the non-existent is a thing.

Ma‘badites.—Tha‘labites who differed from the Akhnasites on the question of the marriage of believing women and from Tha‘lab on the question of taking alms from slaves.

Maimūnites.—‘Ajārida, followers of Maimūn ibn Khālid, who believed that God wills good only and that man determines his actions.

Majhūlites.—Tha‘labites, agreeing generally with the Khārimites, but teaching that he who knows some names and attributes of God and is ignorant of some knows God.

Ma‘lūmites.—Tha‘labites agreeing generally with the Khārimites but alleging that a believer must know all the names and attributes of God.

Manṣūrites.—Ghāliites, followers of Abū Manṣūr ul-‘Ijlī, who at first supported al-Bāqir, but, rejected by him, claimed the imāmate for himself. He was crucified by the caliph Hishām ibn ‘Abd ul-Mālik (Abdalmalik).

Mu‘ammarites.[1]—Mu‘tazilites who strongly denied the predestination of God, and affirmed that God created bodies only, and that the accidents spring naturally from them.

Mufaḍḍalites.[1]—The same as the Mūsāites (q.v.).

Mughīrites.[1]—Ghāliites, followers of Mughīra ibn Sa‘īd ul-‘Ijlī, who claimed the imāmate and prophetic office and held extremely gross views of God.

Muhakkima[1] (the first).—Another name for the Ḥarūrites (above).

Mukarramites.[1]—Tha‘labites who taught that sin consists in ignorance of God.

Mukhtārites.[1]—Kaisānites, followers of al-Mukhtār ibn ‘Ubaid, who held to Mahommed ibn ul-Ḥanafīyya but was disowned by him. He allowed the possibility of change of mind on the part of God.

Murjiites.—Those who postponed judgment of actions until the Day of Judgment. See above.

Mūṣāites.—Imāmites who held to the imāmate of Mūsā ibn Ja‘far, who was imprisoned by Harun al-Rashid and poisoned.

Mushabbiha.[1]—Ṣifātites who compared God’s actions with human actions. They said that the Koran was eternal with all its letters, accents and written signs.

Mu‘tazilites.[1]—The rationalists of Islam. See above, cf. also H. Steiner, Die Mu‘taziliten oder die Freidenker im Islām (Leipzig, 1865).

Muzdārites.[1]—Mu‘tazilites, followers of al-Muzdār, a pupil of Bishr (cf. Bishrites) whose teaching he developed further. He taught that God has power to do evil, but, if he acted thus, would be an evil God; also that man can produce the equal of the Koran.

Najadat (also known as ‘Adhirites).—Kharijites, who followed Najda ibn ‘Āmir of Yemāma as he went to join the Azraqites but withdrew from these, being more orthodox than they. He held that fear of fighting was not sin.

Nāwisites take their name from a person or a place. They are Ja‘farites who believe in Ṣādiq as the mahdi.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 All these names are alternatively spelt Mo- instead of Mu-.