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rose gardens cover several square miles. In 1349 a great part of Maimand and of three little villages belonging to it became wakf (pious endowment) of the shrine at Shiraz of Mir Ahmed, surnamed Shah Chiragh, a son of Musa Kazim, the seventh imam of the Shiahs, and the remainder of the Maimand grounds was given to the shrine by Mir Habbib Ullah Sharifi and by Shah Ismail in 1504; the administration of the Maimand property as well as the guardianship of the shrine is still with the descendants of Mir Habbib Ullah.

MAIMBOURG, LOUIS (1610-1686), French Jesuit and historian, was born at Nancy. He entered the Society of Jesus at the age of sixteen, and after studying at Rome became a classical master in the Jesuit college at Rouen. He afterwards devoted himself to preaching, but with only moderate success. After having taken some part in minor controversies he threw himself with energy into the dispute which had arisen as to the Gallican liberties; for his Traité historique sur les prerogatives de l'Eglise de Rome (1682) he was by command of Innocent XI. expelled from the Society, but rewarded by Louis XIV. with a residence at the abbey of St Victor, Paris, and a pension. He died on the 13th of August 1686. His numerous works include histories of Arianism, the iconoclastic controversy, the Greek schism, Lutheranism, Calvinism, and of the pontificates of Leo I. and Gregory I.; they are mere compilations, written indeed in a very lively and attractive style, but inaccurate and untrustworthy.

The History of Arianism was published in English (1728-1729) by William Webster, with an appendix on the English writers in the Socinian and Arian controversies.

MAIMING, mutilation, a physical injury which involves the 'loss of, or incapacity to use, a bodily member. The verb “ to maim, ” in M. E. maynhe, mahayme, mayme, &c. was adopted from O. Fr. mahaignier: cf. It. magagnars, Med. Lat. mahemiare, mahennare, &c. (see Du Cange, Gloss., s.'v. “ Mahamium”). Maiming or mutilation is and has been practised by many races with various ethnical and religious signihcances, and was a customary form of punishment on the principle of an “eye for an eye” (see MUTILATION). In law “maiming” is a criminal offence; the old law term for a special case of maiming of persons was “ mayhem ” (q.°v.), an Anglo-French variant form of the word. Maiming of animals by others than their owners is a particular form of the offences generally grouped as “ malicious damage.” For the purpose of the law as to this offence animals are divided into cattle, which includes horses, pigs and asses, and other animals which are either subjects of larceny at common law or are usually kept in confinement or for domestic purposes. The punishment for maiming of cattle is three to fourteen years' penal servitude. Malicious injury to other animals is a misdemeanour punishable on summary conviction. For a second offence the penalty is imprisonment with hard labour for over twelve months. (Malicious Damage Act 1861.) Maiming of animals by their owner falls under the Cruelty to Animals Acts.

MAIMON, SALOMON (1754-1800), German philosopher, was born of Jewish parentage in Polish Lithuania, and died at Nieder-Siegersdorf on the 22nd of November 1800. He married at the age of twelve, and studied medicine in Berlin. In 1770 he severed his Connexion with his orthodox co-religionists by his critical commentary on the M oreh N ebulzim of Maimonides, and devoted himself to the study of philosophy on the lines of Wolff and Moses Mendelssohn. After many vicissitudes he found a peaceful residence in the house of .Count Kalkreuth at Nieder-Siegersdorf in 1790. During the ensuing ten years he published the works which have made his reputation as a critical philosopher. Hitherto his life had been a long struggle against difficulties of all kinds. From his autobiography, it is clear that his keen critical faculty was developed in great measure by the slender means of culture at his disposal. It was not till -1788 that he made the acquaintance of the Kantian philosophy, which was to form the basis of his lifework, and as early as 1790 he published the Versuch ilber die Transcendental philosophie, in which he formulates his objections to the system. He seizes upon the fundamental incompatibility of a consciousness which can apprehend, and yet is separated from, the “ thing-in-itself.” That which is object of thou§ 1t cannot be outside consciousness; just as in mathematics / - 1 is an unreal quantity, so “ things-in-themselves ” are ex hypothesi outside consciousness, i.e. are unthinkable. The Kantian paradox he explains as the result of an attempt to explain the origin of the “ given ” in consciousness. The form of things is admittedly subjective; the mind endeavours to explain the material of the given in the same terms, an attempt which is not only impossible but involves a denial of the elementary laws of thought. Knowledge of the given is, therefore, essentially incomplete. Complete or perfect knowledge is confined to the domain of pure thought, to logic and mathematics. Thus the problem of the “ thing-initself ” is dismissed from the inquiry, and philosophy is limited to the sphere of pure thought. The Kantian categories are, indeed, demonstrable and true, but their application to the given is meaningless and unthinkable. By this critical scepticism Maimon takes up a position intermediate between Kant and Hume. Hume's attitude to the empirical is entirely supported by Maimon. The casual concept, as given by experience, expresses not a necessary objective order of things, but an ordered scheme of perception; it is subjective and cannot be postulated as a concrete law apart from consciousness. The main argument of the Transcendentalphilosophie not only drew from Kant, who saw it in MS., the remark that Maimon alone of his all critics had mastered the true meaning of his philosophy, but also directed the path of most subsequent criticism. Maimon's chief works, in addition to the above quoted, are Philos. Worterbuch (1791); Streifereien im Gebiete der Philos. (1793);- U ber die Progresse der Philos. (1793); Die Kategorien des Aristoteles mit Anmerkungen erldutert (1794); Versuch einer, neuen Logik (1794 and 1798); Kritische Untersuchungen riber den mensehl. Geist (1797). See S. Maimons Lebensgeschichte 'van ihm selbst beschrieben (1792, ed. K. P. Moritz; Eng. trans. by ]. C. Murray, 1888); Wolff, Maimoniana (1813); Witte, S. Maimon (1876).

MAIMONIDES, the common name of RABBI Moses BEN MAIMON (1135-1204), also known from the initials of these last words as RAMBAM, Jewish philosopher. His life falls into three epochs, which may be typified by the townsin which they were passed, viz. Cordova, Fez and Cairo. He was born in Cordova on the 20th of March 1135, the eve of Passover; he had a brother, David, and one sister. His early years were spent in his native town, which had then just passed the zenith of its glory. The Arab rulers had fostered the development of science, art, medicine, philosophy, literature and learning. All these influences played their part in the education of Maimonides, whose father, besides training him in all branches of Hebrew and Jewish scholarship, implanted in the youth a sound knowledge of these secular studies as well. In 1148 Cordova was taken from the last Fatimite caliph by the victorious Almohades, who had spread over Spain from N. Africa. These militant revivalists strove to re-establish Islam in what they considered its primitive simplicity. They laid great stress on the unity of God, and tolerated neither schism within the faith nor dissent without. The position of the orthodox Spanish Jews became intolerable, and Maimon, after ten years of hardships, wanderings and escapes, decided to take his family out of the country. He settled in Fez. The years which Maimonides spent there (1160~1165) were memorable for his friendship with Abdul Arab Ibn Muisha-a Moslem poet and theologian and for the commencement of his literary activity. His energies were diverted towards stimulating the religious feelings of his brethren and combating assimilation. In consequence he became alarmed for his own safety, and in 1165 left for Egypt, where he settled after a passing visit to the Holy Land. Cordova taught him the humanities; Fez humanity. Cairo, besides giving him prominence at court and in the Jewish community, was the centre of the almost world-wide influence which he exercised over Jewry by his monumental writings and dominant personality. By 1177 Maimonides was the recognized chief of the Cairene congregation and consulted on important matters by communities far and wide. Here he was joined by his most