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MAINE DE BIRAN—MAINE-ET-LOIRE


Samuel Cony Republican 1864
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain 1867
Sidney Perham 1871
Nelson Dingley 1874
Selden Connor 1876
Alonzo Garcelon Democrat 1879
Daniel F. Davis Republican 1880
Harris Merrill Plaisted  Democrat-Greenback  1881
Frederick Robie Republican 1883
Joseph R. Bodwell 1887
Sebastian S. Marble (acting) 1887
Edwin C. Burleigh 1889
Henry B. Cleaves 1893
Llewellyn Powers 1897
John Fremont Hill 1901
William T. Cobb 1905
Bert M. Fernald 1909
Frederick W. Plaisted Democrat 1911

See S. L. Boardman, Climate, &c., of Maine (Washington, 1884); Walton Wells, The Water Power of Maine (Augusta, 1869); G. H. Hitchcock, General Report on the Geology of Maine (Augusta, 1861); G. H. Stone, The Glacial Gravels of Maine and their Associated Deposits (Washington, 1899); T. Nelson Dale, The Granites of Maine (Washington, 1907), being Bulletin 313 of the U. S. Geological Survey; B. F. De Costa, Sketches of the Coast of Maine and Isle of Shoals (New York, 1869); H. D. Thoreau, The Maine Woods (Boston, 1881); L. L. Hubbard, Woods and Lakes of Maine (Boston, 1883); T. S. Steele, Canoe and Camera, a Two Hundred Mile Tour through the Maine Forests (New York, 1882); William MacDonald, The Government of Maine, Its History and Administration (New York, 1902); Maine Historical Society Collections (Portland, 1831-); W. D. Williamson, History of the State of Maine (Hallowell, 1832); J. P. Baxter, Sir Ferdinando Gorges and his Province of Maine (Boston, 1890) and George Cleeve of Casco Bay (Portland, 1885); George Folsom, History of Saco and Biddeford, with notices of other Early Settlements and of the Proprietary Governments in Maine (Saco, 1830); J. L. Chamberlain, Maine, Her Place in History (Augusta, 1877); E. S. Whitin, Factory Legislation in Maine (New York, 1908).

MAINE DE BIRAN, FRANÇOIS-PIERRE-GONTHIER (1766-1824), French philosopher, was born at Bergerac, on the 29th of November, 1766. The name Maine he assumed (some time before 1787) from an estate called Le Maine, near, Mouleydier. After studying with distinction under the doctrinaires of Périgueux, he entered the life-guards of Louis XVI., and was present at Versailles on the memorable 5th and 6th of October 1789. On the breaking up of the gardes du corps Biran retired to his patrimonial inheritance of Grateloup, near Bergerac, where his retired life preserved him from the horrors of the Revolution. It was at this period that, to use his own words, he “passed per saltum from frivolity to philosophy.” He began with psychology, which he made the study of his life. After the Reign of Terror Maine de Biran took part in political affairs. Having been excluded from the council of the Five Hundred on suspicion of royalism, he took part with his friend Lainé in the commission of 1813, which gave expression for the first time to direct opposition to the will of the emperor. After the Restoration he held the office of treasurer to the chamber of deputies, and habitually retired during the autumn recess to his native district to pursue his favourite study. He died on the 20th (16th, or 23rd, according to others) of July 1824.

Maine de Biran's philosophical reputation has suffered from two causes—his obscure and laboured style, and the fact that only a few, and these the least characteristic, of his writings appeared during his lifetime. These consisted of the essay on habit (Sur l'influence de l'habitude, 1803), a critical review of P. Laromiguière's lectures (1817), and the philosophical portion of the article “Leibnitz” in the Biographie universelle (1819). A treatise on the analysis of thought (Sur la decomposition de la pensée), although sent to press, was never printed. In 1834 these writings, together with the essay entitled Nouvelles considérations sur les rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, were published by Victor Cousin, who in 1841 added three volumes, under the title Œuvres philosophiques de Maine de Biran. But the publication (in 1859) by E. Naville (from MSS. placed at his father's disposal by Biran's son) of the Œuvres inédites de Maine de Biran, in three volumes, first rendered possible a connected view of his philosophical development. At first a sensualist, like Condillac and Locke, next an intellectualist, he finally shows himself a mystical theosophist. The Essai sur les fondements de la psychologie represents the second or completest stage of his philosophy, the fragments of the Nouveaux essais d'anthropologie the third.

Maine de Biran's first essays in philosophy were written avowedly from the point of view of Locke and Condillac, but even in them he was brought to signalize the essential fact on which his later speculation turns. Dealing with the formation of habits, he is compelled to note that passive impressions, however transformed, do not furnish a complete or adequate explanation. With Laromiguière he distinguishes attention as an active effort, of no less importance than the passive receptivity of sense, and with Butler distinguishes passively formed customs from active habits. He finally arrived at the conclusion that Condillac's notion of passive receptivity as the one source of conscious experience was not only an error in fact but an error of method—in short, that the mechanical mode of viewing consciousness as formed by external influence was fallacious and deceptive. For it he proposed to substitute the genetic method, whereby human conscious experience might be exhibited as growing or developing from its essential basis in connexion with external conditions. The essential basis he finds in the real consciousness, of self as an active striving power, and the stages of its development, corresponding to what one may call the relative importance of the external conditions and the reflective clearness of self-consciousness he designates as the affective, the perceptive and the reflective. In connexion with this Biran treats most of the obscure problems which arise in dealing with conscious experience, such as the mode by which the organism is cognized, the mode by which the organism is distinguished from extra-organic things, and the nature of those general ideas by which the relations of things are known to us—cause, power, force, &c.

In the latest stage of his speculation Biran distinguishes the animal existence from the human, under which the three forms above noted are classed, and both from the life of the spirit, in which human thought is brought into relation with the super sensible, divine system of things. This stage is left imperfect. Altogether Biran's work presents a very remarkable specimen of deep metaphysical thinking directed by preference to the psychological aspect of experience.

The Œuvres inédites of Maine de Biran by E. Naville contain an introductory study; in 1887 appeared Science et psychologies: nouvelles œuvres inédites, with introduction by A. Bertrand. See also O. Merton, Étude critique sur Maine de Biran (1865); E. Naville, Maine de Biran, sa vie et ses pensées (1874); J. Gérard, Maine de Biran, essai sur sa philosophie (1876); Mayonade, Pensées et pages inédites de Maine de Biran (Périgueux, 1896); G. Allievo, “Maine de Biran e la sua dottrina antropologica” (Turin, 1896, in Memorie dell' academia delle scienze, 2nd ser., xlv, pt. 2); A. Lang, Maine de Biran und die neuere Philosophie (Cologne, 1901); monographs by A. Kühtmann (Bremen, 1901) and M. Couailhac (1905); N. E. Truman in Cornell Studies in Philosophy, No. 5 (1904) on Maine de Biran's Philosophy of Will.

MAINE-ET-LOIRE, a department of western France, formed in 1790 for the most part out of the southern portion of the former province of Anjou, and bounded N. by the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe, E. by Indre-et-Loire, S.E. by Vienne, S. by Deux-Sèvres and Venilée, W. by Loire-Inférieure, and N W. by Ille-et-Vilaine. Area, 2786 sq. m. Pop. (1906), 513,490. Maine-et-Loire is made up of two distinct regions, the line of demarcation running roughly from north to south along the valley of the Sarthe, then turning south-west and passing Brissac and Doué; that to the west consists of granites, felspars, and a continuation of the geological formations of Brittany and Vendée; to the east, schists, limestone and chalk prevail. The department is traversed from east to West by the majestic valley of the Loire, with its rich orchards, nurseries and market-gardens. The highest altitudes are found in the south-west, where north-east of Cholet one eminence reaches 689 ft. Elsewhere the surface is low and undulating in character. The department belongs entirely to the basin of the Loire, the bed of which is wide but shallow, and full of islands, the depth of the water in summer being at some places little more than 2 ft. Floods are sudden and destructive. The chief affluent of the Loire within the department is the Maine, formed a little above Angers by the junction of the Mayenne and the Sarthe, the latter having previously received the waters of the Loire. All three are navigable. Other tributaries of the Loire are the Thouet (with its tributary the Dive), the Layon, the Evre, and the Divatte on the left, and the Authion on the right. The Mayenne is joined on the right by the Oudon, which can be navigated below Segré. The Erdre, which joins the Loire at Nantes, and the Moine, a tributary of the Sèvre-Nantaise, both rise