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clasp of gold set in rubies. The third grade, for civilians a peacock, for the military a leopard with a clasp of Worked gold. The fourth grade, for civilians a wild goose, for the military a tiger, and a clasp of worked gold with a silver button. The fifth grade, for civilians a silver pheasant, for the military a bear and a clasp of plain gold with a silver button. The sixth grade, for civilians an egret, for the military a tiger-cat with a mother-of-pearl clasp. The seventh grade, for civilians a mandarin duck, for the military a mottled bear with fa silver clasp. The eighth grade, for civilians a quail, for the military a seal with a clear horn clasp. The ninth grade, for civilians a long-tailed jay, for the military a rhinoceros with a buffalo-horn clasp.

The “ mandarin language ” is the Chinese, which is spoken in official and legal circles; it is also spoken over a considerable portion of the country, particularly the northern and central parts, though not perhaps with the same purity. Mandarin duck (anas galericulata) and Mandarin orange (citrus nobilis) possibly derive their names, by analogy, from the sense of superiority implied in the title “ mandarin.” See Society in China, by Sir R. K. Douglas; L'Empi1'e du milieu, by E. and O. Reclus.

MANDASOR, or Mandsaur, a town of Central India, in the native state of Gwalior, on the Rajputana railway, 31 m. S. of Neemuch. Pop. (1901), 20,936. It gave its name to the treaty with Holkar, which concluded the Mahratta-Pindari War in 1818. It is a centre of the Malwa opium trade.

Mandasor and its neighbourhood are full of archaeological interest. An inscription discovered near the town indicated the erection of a temple of the sun in 437, and at Sondani are two great monolith pillars recording a victory of Yasodharma, king of Malwa, in 528. The fort dates from the 14th and 15th centuries. Hindu and Jain remains are numerous, though the town is now entirely Mahommedan.

MANDATE (Mandatum), a contract in Roman law constituted by one person (the mandatarius) promising to do something gratuitously at the request of another (the mandator), who undertakes to indemnify him against loss. The jurist distinguished the different cases of mandatum according as the object of the contract was the benefit of the mandator or a third person singly, or the mandator and a third person, the mandator and the mandatarius, or the mandatarius and a third person together. When the benefit was that of the mandatarius alone, the obligations of the contract were held not to arise, although the form of the contract might exist, the commission being held to be merely advice tendered to the mandatarius, and acted on by him at his own risk. Mandatum was classified as one of the contracts established by consent of the parties alone; but, as there was really no obligation of any kind until the mandatarius had acted on the mandate, it has with more propriety been referred to the contracts created by the supply of some fact (re). The obligations of the mandatarius under the contract were, briefly, to do what he had promised according to his instructions, observing ordinary diligence in taking care of any property entrusted to him, and handing over to his principal the results of his action, including the right to sue in his name. On the other hand, the principal was bound to recoup him his expenses and indemnify him against loss through obligations he might have incurred.

The essentials and the terminology of the contract are preserved in most modern systems of law. But in English law mandate, under that name, can hardly be said to exist as a separate form of contract. To some extent the law of mandatum corresponds partly to the law of principal and agent, partly to that of principal and surety.“ Mandate " is retained to signify the contract more generally known as gratuitous bailment. It is restricted to personal property, and it implies the delivery of something to the bailee, both of which conditions are unknown in the mandatum of the civil law (see BAILMENT).

MANDAUE, a town of the province of Cebú, island of Cebú, Philippine Islands, on the E. coast and E. coast road, about 4 m. N.E. of the town of Cebú, the capital. Pop. (1903), 11,078; in the same year the town of Consolacién (pop. 5511) was merged with Mandaue. Its climate is very hot, but healthy. The principal industries are the raising of Indian corn and sugar-cane and the manufacture of salt from sea-water. Cebú-Visayan is the language.

MANDELIC ACID (Phenylglycollic Acid), C8H8O3 or C6H5·CH(OH)·COOH, an isomer of the cresotinic and the oxymethylbenzoic acids. Since the molecule contains an asymmetric carbon atom, the acid exists in three forms, one being an inactive “ racemic ” mixture, and the other two being optically active forms. The inactive variety is known as paramandelic acid. It may be prepared by the action of hydrochloric acid on the addition compound of benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid:—
C6H5CHO + HCN + HCl + 2H2O = C6H5·CHOH·COOH + NH4Cl,
(F. L. Winckler, Ann., 1836, 18, 310), by boiling phenylchloracetic acid with alkalis (A. Spiegel, Ber., 1881, 14, 239), by heating benzoylformaldehyde with alkalis (H. v. Pechmann, Ber., 1887, zo, 2905), and by the action of dilute alkalies on w-dibromacetophenone (C. Engler, Ber., 1887, 20, 2202):—
C6H5COCHBr2 + 3KHO = 2KBr + H2O + C6H5·CHOH·CO2K.

It crystallizes from water in large rhombic crystals, which melt at 116º C. Oxidizing agents convert it into benzaldehyde. When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus it forms phenylacetic acid; whilst concentrated hydrobromic acid and hydrochloric acid at moderate temperatures convert it into phenylbrom- and phenylchlor-acetic acids. The inactive mixture may be resolved into its active components by fractional crystallization of the cinchonine salt, when the salt of the dextro modification separates first; or the ammonium salt may be fermented by Penicillium glaucum, when the laevo form is destroyed and the dextro form remains untouched; on the other hand, Saccharomyces ellipsoïdeus destroys the dextro form, but does not touch the laevo form. A mixture of the two forms in equivalent quantities produces the inactive variety, which is also obtained when either form is heated for some hours to 160° C.

MANDER, CAREL VAN (1548-1606), Dutch painter, poet and biographer, was born of a noble family at Meulebeke. He studied under Lucas de Heere at Ghent, and in 1 568-1569 under Pieter Vlerick at Kortryck. The next five years he devoted to the writing of religious plays for which he also painted the scenery. Then followed three years in Rome (1574-1577), where he is said to have been the first to discover the catacombs. On his return journey he passed through Vienna, where, together with the sculptor Hans Mont, he made the triumphal arch for the entry of the emperor Rudolph. After many vicissitudes caused by war, loss of fortune and plague, he settled at Haarlem where, in conjunction with Goltzius and Cornelisz, he founded a successful academy of painting. His fame is, however, principally based upon a voluminous biographical work on the paintings of various epochs-a book that has become for the northern countries what Vasari's Lives of the Painters became for Italy. It was completed in 1603 and published in 1604, in which year Van Mander removed to Amsterdam, where he died in 1606.

MANDEVILLE, BERNARD DE (1670-1733), English philosopher and satirist, was born at Dordrecht, where his father practised as a physician. On leaving the Erasmus school' at Rotterdam he gave proof of his ability by an Orazfio scholastic de medficina (1685), and at Leiden University in 1689 he maintained a thesis De brutorum aperationibus, in which he advocated the Cartesian theory of automatism among animals. In 1691 he took his medical degree, pronouncing an “ inaugural'disputation, ” De -chylosi vitiata. Afterwards he came to England “ to learn the language, ” and succeeded so remarkably that many refused to believe he was a foreigner. As a physician he seems to have done little, and lived poorly on a pension given him by some Dutch merchants and money which he earned from distillers for advocating the use of spirits. His conversational abilities won him the friendship of Lord Macclesfield (chief justice 1710-1718) who introduced him to Addison, described by Mandeville as “ a parson in a tye-wig.” He died in January (19th or zrst) 1733/4 at Hackney.