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the forest region, left little more than the imposition of their language; but where there was any element of Caucasian blood (for the original Mandingo invaders were evide-ntly dashed with the Caucasian by intermingling with some of the negroid races of north-central Africa), they imposed a degree of civilization which excluded cannibalism (still rampant in much of the forest region of West Africa), introduced working in leather and in metals, and was everywhere signalized by a passionate love of music, a characteristic of all true Mandingo tribes at the present day. It is noteworthy that many of the instruments affected by the Mandingos are found again in the more civilized regions of Bantu Africa, as well as in the central Sudan. Many of these types of musical instruments can also be traced originally to ancient Egypt. The Mandingos also seem to have brought with them in their westward march the Egyptian type of ox, with the long, erect horns. It would almost seem as if this breed had been preceded by the zebu or humped ox; though these two types are evidently of common origin so far as derivation from one wild species is concerned. The Mandingos maintain the system of totems or clans, and each section or tribe identifies itself with a symbol, which is usually an animal or a plant. The 'Mandenga are supposed to have either the manati or the hippopotamus as tanna (totem). (Binger states that the manati was the totem of the Mande group, to which perhaps belonged originally the Susu and the Dyula.) The Bamana are the people of the crocodile; the Samanke are the people of the elephant; the Samokho of the snake. Other totems or symbols of special families or castes are the dog, the calabash or gourd, the lion, the green monkey, the leopard, the monitor lizard, a certain spice called bandugu, certain rats, the python, the puff-adder, &c. Authorities.*Th€ bibliography dealing with the Mandingo peoples is very extensive, but only the following works need be cited: Captain L. G. Binger, Du Niger au Golfe de Guinée, &c. (1892); Maurice Delafosse, Vocabulaires comparatifs de plus de 60 langues el dialecles parlés a la Ctile d'Ivoire, &c. (1904); Lieut. Des lagnes, Le Plateau eeniral nigérien (1907); Lady Lugard, A TropicalpDependency (1905); Sir Harry Johnston, Libefia(1906). Most of these works contain extensive bibliographies. (H. H. j.)

The Melle Empire.-The tradition which ascribes the arrival of the Mandingo in the western Sudan to the 10th or 1 1th century is referred to in the previous section. It is not known by whom the Melle (Mali) state was founded. Neither is there certainty as to the site of the capital, also called Melle. Idrisi in the 12th century describes the Wangara (a Hausa name for the Mandingo) as a powerful people, and El Bakri writes in similar terms. But the first king whose name is preserved was Baramindana, believed to have reigned from 1213 to 1235. His territory lay south of that of Jenné, partly within the bend of the Niger and partly west of that river. The people were already Moslem, and the capital was a rendezvous for merchants from all parts of the western Sudan and the Barbary States. Mari Iatah (or Diara), Baramindana's successor, about the middle of the 13th century conquered the Susu, then masters of Ghanata (Ghana). Early in the 14th century Mansa, i.e. Sultan, Kunkur Musa, extended the empire, known as the Mellistine, to its greatest limits, making himself master of Timbuktu, Gao and all the Songhoi dominions. His authority extended northward over the Sahara to the Tuat oases. Mansa Suleiman was on the throne when in 1352-1353 Melle was visited by Ibn Batuta. By this monarch the empire was divided into three great provinces, ruled by viceroys. For a century afterwards Melle appears to have been the dominant Sudan state west of the Lower Niger, but it had to meet the hostility of the growing power of the pagan Mossi, of the Tuareg in the north and of the Songhoi, who under Sunni Ali (e. 1325) had already regained a measure of independence. Cadamosto nevertheless describes Melle in 1454 as being still the most powerful of the negro-land kingdoms and the most important for its traffic in gold and slaves. The Songhoi sovereign Askia. is said to have completed the conquest of Melle at the beginning of the 16th century. It nevertheless retained some sort of national existence-though with the advent of the Moors in the Niger countries (end of the 16th century) native civilization sufiered a blow from which it never recovered. Civil war is said to have finally wrought the ruin of Melle about the middle of the 17th century? The Portuguese, from their first appearance on the Senegal and Gambia, entered into friendly relations with the rulers of Melle. Barros relates (Da Asia, Decade I.) that John II. of Portugal sent embassies to the court of Melle by way of the Gambia (end of the 1 5th century). At that time the authority of Melle was said to extend Westward to the coast. The king, pressed by the Mossi, the Songhoi and the Fula, solicited the help of his “friends and allies” the Portuguese -with what result does not appear; but in 1534 Barros himself dispatched an ambassador to the king of Melle concerning the trade of the Gambia. By way of that river the Portuguese themselves penetrated as far as Bambuk, a country conquered by the Mandingo in the 12th century. By Barros the name of the Melle ruler is given as Mandi Mansa, which may be the native form for “ Sultan of the Mandi ” (Mandingo). See further TIMBUKTU and the authorities there cited; ef. also L. Marc, Le Pays Mossi (Paris, 1909). Lists of Mandingo sovereigns are given in Stokvis, Manuel d'histoire, vol. i. (Leiden, 1888). (F. R. C.)

MANDLA, a town and district of British India, in the jubbulpore division of the Central Provinces. The town is on the river Nerbudda, 1787 ft. above the sea. It has a manufacture of bell-metal vessels. Pop. (rgor), 5054. The district of Mandla, among the Satpura hills, has an area of 5054 sq. rn. It consists of a wild highland region, broken up by the valleys of numerous rivers and streams. The Nerbudda Hows through the centre of the district, receiving several tributaries which take their rise in the Maikal hills, a range densely clothed with sal forest, and forming part of the great watershed between eastern and western India. The loftiest mountain is Chauradadar, about 3400 ft. high. Tigers abound, and the proportion of deaths caused by wild animals is greater than in any other district of the Central Provinces. The magnihcent stil forests which formerly clothed the highlands have suffered greatly from the nomadic system of cultivation practised by the hill tribes, who burned the wood and sowed their crops in the ashes; but measures have been taken to prevent further damage. The population in 1901 was 3r8,400, showing a decrease of 65% in the decade, due to famine. The aboriginal or hill tribes are more numerous in Mandla than in any other district of the Central Provinces, particularly the Gonds. The principal crops are rice, wheat, other food grains, pulse and oil-seeds. There is a little manufacture of country cloth. A branch of the Bengal-Nagpur railway touches the south-western border of the district. Mandla suffered most severely from the famine of I8Q6*I8Q7, partly owing to its inaccessibility, and partly from the shy habits of the aboriginal tribes. The registered death-rate in 1907 was as high as 96 per thousand.

MANDOLINE (Fr. mandolin; Ger. M andoline; It. mandolin), the treble member of the lute family, and therefore a stringed instrument of great antiquity. The mandolin is classified am engst the stringed instruments having a vaulted back, which is more accentuated than even that of the lute. The mandolin is strung with steel and brass wire strings. There are two varieties of mandolin es, both Italian: (1) the Neapolitan, 2 ft. long, which is the best known, and has four courses of pairs of unisons tuned like the violin in fifths; (2) the Milanese, which is slightly larger and has five or six courses of pairs of unisons. The neck is covered by a fingerboard, on which are distributed the twelve or more frets which form nuts at the correct points under the strings on which the fingers must press to obtain the chromatic sernitones of the scale. The strings are twanged by means of a plectrum or pick, held between the thumb and first finger of the right hand. In order to strike a string the pick is given a gliding motion over the string combined with a down or an up movement, respectively indicated by signs over the notes. In order to sustain notes on the mandolin the effect known as tremolo is employed; it is produced by means of a double movement of the pick up and down over a pair of strings.

On the ruins of the old Melle dominions arose five smaller kingdoms, representing different sections of the Mandingo peoples.