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code. He defined almost every principle that governed commercial transactions in such a manner that his successors had only to apply the rules he had laid down. His knowledge of Roman and foreign law, and the general width of his education, freed him from the danger of relying too exclusively upon narrow precedents, and afforded him a storehouse of principles and illustrations, while the grasp and acuteness of his intellect enabled him to put his judgments in a form which almost always commanded assent. A similar influence was exerted by him in other branches of the common law; and although, after his retirement, a reaction took place, and he was regarded for a while as one who had corrupted the ancient principles of English law, these prejudices passed rapidly away, and the value of his work in bringing the older law into harmony with the needs of modern society has long been fully recognized.

See Holliday's Life (1797); Campbell's Chief Justices; Foss's Judges; Greville's Memoirs, passim; Horace Walpole's Letters; and other memoirs and works on the period.

MANSFIELD, a market town and municipal borough in the Mansfield parliamentary division of Nottinghamshire, England, on the small river Mann or Mann; the junction of several branches of the Midland railway, by which it is 142 m. N.N.W. from London. Pop. (1891), 13,094; (1901), 15,250. Area, 7068 acres. The church of St Peter is partly Early Norman, and partly Perpendicular. There is a grammar school founded by Queen Elizabeth in 1561, occupying modern buildings. Twelve almshouses were founded by Elizabeth Heath in 1693, and to these six were afterwards added. There are a number of other charities. The industries are the manufacture of lace, thread, boots and machinery, iron-founding and brewing. In the neighbourhood, as at Mansfield Woodhouse to the north, there are quarries of limestone, sandstone and freestone. The town is governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. During the heptarchy Mansfield was occasionally the residence of the Mercian kings, and it was afterwards a favourite resort of Norman sovereigns, lying as it does on the western outskirts of Sherwood Forest. By Henry VIII. the manor was granted to the earl of Surrey. Afterwards it went by exchange to the duke of Newcastle, and thence to the Portland family. The town obtained a fair from Richard II. in 1377. It became a municipal borough in 1891.

MANSFIELD, a city and the county-seat of Richland county, Ohio, U.S.A., about 65 m. S.W. of Cleveland. Pop. (1890), 13473; (1900), 17,640, of whom 1781 were foreign-bom; (1910 census), 20,768. It is served by the Pennsylvania (Pittsburg, Ft Wayne & Chicago division), the Erie, and the Baltimore & Ohio railways. It is built on an eminence (1150 ft.), and has two public parks, a substantial court-house, a soldiers' and sailors' memorial building, a public library, a hospital and many fine residences. It is the seat of the Ohio state reformatory. Mansfield has an extensive trade with the surrounding agricultural country, but its largest interests are in manufactures. The total factory product in 1905 was valued at $7,3§ 3,5']8. There are natural gas wells in the vicinity. The Waterworks and the sewage disposal plant are owned and 'operated by the municipality. Mansfield was laid out in ISOS, and was named in honour of Lieut.-Colonel Jared Mansfield (1759-1830), United States surveyor of Ohio and the North-west Territory in 1803-1812, and professor of natural and experimental 'philosophy at West Point from 1812 to 1828. Mansfield was incorporated as a village in 1828 and was first chartered as a city in 1857. It was the home of John Sherman from 1840 until his death.

MANSION (through O. Fr. mansion, mod. maison, from Lat. mansio, dwelling-place, stage on a journey; manere, to remain), a term applied in early English use to the principal house of the lord of a manor. By the Settled Land Act 1890, § IO, subsec. 2, repealing § 15 of the act of 1882, “ the principal mansion-house on any settled land shall not be sold or exchanged or leased by the tenant for life without the consent of the trustees of the settlement or an order of the court.” The principles guiding an English court of law for making or refusing such an order are laid down in In re the M arqucss of Aitesbury's Settled Estate (1892), 1 Ch. 506, 546; A.C. 356. In general usage, the term “ mansion ” is given to any large and important house in town or country; and “ mansion house " to the official residence, when provided, of the mayor of a borough, particularly to that of the lord mayors of London and Dublin. From the general meaning of a conspicuously large dwelling-place comes the modern employment of the term “ mansions, ” in London and elsewhere, for large buildings composed of “ flats.”

MANSLAUGHTER (O. Eng., mannstaeht, from mann, man, and slaeht, act of slaying, sleain, to slay, properly to smite; cf. Ger. schtagen, Schtacht, battle), a term in English law signifying “unlawful homicide without malice aforethought ” (Stephen, Digest of the Criminal Law, Art. 22 3)., The distinction between manslaughter and murder and other forms of homicide is treated under HOMICIDE.

MANSON, GEORGE (1850-1876), Scottish water-colour painter, was born in Edinburgh on the 3rd of December 1850. When about fifteen he was apprenticed as a Woodcutter with W.~& R. Chambers, with whom he remained for over five years, diligently employing all his spare time in the study and practice of art, and producing in his morning and evening hours watercolours of much delicacy and beauty. In 1871 he devoted himself exclusively to painting. His subjects were derived from humble Scottish life-especially child-life, varied occasionally by portraiture, by landscape, and by views of picturesque architecture. In 1873 he visited Normandy, Belgium and Holland; in the following year he- spent several months in Sark; and in 1875 he resided at St Lo, and in Paris, where he mastered the processes of etching. Meanwhile in his water-colour work he had been adding more of breadth and power to the tenderness and richness of colour which distinguished his early pictures, and he was planning more complex and important subjects. But his health .had been gradually failing, and he was ordered to Lympstone in Devonshire, where he died on the 27th of February 1876.

A volume of 'photographs from his water-colours and sketches, with a memoir by ]. M. Gray, was published in 1880. For an account of Manson's technical method as a wood engraver see P. G. Hamerton's Graphic Arts, p. 311.

MANSUR (Arab. “ victorious ”), a surname (laqab) assumed by a large number of Mahommedan princes. The best known are: (1 ABU ]A'rAR IBN MAHOMMED, second caliph of the Abbasid house, who reigned A.D. 754-775 (see CALIPHATE: § C, § 2); (2) ABU TAHIR ISMA'IL IBN AL-QAIM, the third Fatimite caliph of Africa (946-953) (see FATIMITES); (3) ABU YUSUF YA 'QITB IBN Yf1sUF, often described as Jacob Almanzor, of the Moorish dynasty of the Almohades, conqueror of Alfonso III. in the battle of Alarcos (1195); (4) IBN Ani 'AMIR MAHOMMED, commonly called Almanzor by European writers, of an ancient but not illustrious Arab family, which had its seat at Torrox near Algeciras. The last-named was born A.D. 939, and began life as a lawyer at Cordova. In 967 he obtained a place at the court of Hakam II., the Andalusian caliph, and by an unusual combination. of the talents of a courtier with administrative ability rapidly rose to distinction, enjoying the powerful support of Subh, the favourite of the caliph and mother of his heir Hisham. The death of Hakam (976) and the accession of a minor gave fresh scope to his genius, and in 978 he became chief minister. The weak young caliph was absorbed in exercises of piety, but at first Mansur had to share the power with his father in-law Ghalib, the best general of Andalusia, and with the mother of Hisham. At last a rupture took place between the two ministers. Ghalib professed himself the champion of the caliph and called in the aid of the Christians of Leon; but Mansur, anticipating the struggle, had long before remodelled the army and secured its support. Ghalib fell in battle (981); a victorious campaign chastised the Leonese; and on his return to Cordova the victor assumed his regal surname of at-Ma-nsnr bittah, and became practically sovereign of Andalusia. The caliph waswa mere prisoner of state, and Mansur ultimately assumed the title as well as the prerogatives of king (996), Unscrupulous in the means by which he rose to power, he wielded the sovereignty