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None of these charts is graduated, and the horizontal and vertical lines which cross many of them represent neither parallels nor meridians. Their most characteristic feature, and

FIG. 2I.'-Map illustrating Marino Sanuto's Liber secretorum jidelium crucis.

one by which they can most readily be recognized, is presented by groups or systems of rhumb-lines, each group of these lines radiating from a common centre,

who first combined the charts of the separate basins of the Mediterranean so as to produce a chart of the whole. This accounts for Gibraltar and Alexandria being shown as lying due east and west of each other, although there is a difference of 5° of latitude between them, a fact known long before Ptolemy. The production of these charts employed numerous licensed draughtsmen in the principal seaports of Italy and Catalonia, and among seamen these MS. charts remained popular long after the productions of the printing-press had become available. The oldest of these maps which have been preserved, the socalled “ Pisan chart, ” which belongs probably to the middle of the 13th century, and a set of eight charts, known by the name of its former owner, the Cavaliere Tamar Luxoro, of somewhat later date, are both the work of Genoese artists. Among more eminent Genoese cartographers are loannes da Carignano (d. 1344), Petrus Vesconte, who worked in 1311 and 1327, and is the draughtsman of the maps illustrating Marino Sanuto's Liber secrezforum fidelium crucis, which was to have roused Christendom to engage in another crusade (figs. IQ and 21) Battista Beccario (1426, 1435) and Bartolomeo Pareto (1455). Venice ranks next to Genoa as a centre of cartographic activity. Associated with it are Francesco Pizigano (1367-1373), Francesco de Cesanis (1421), Giacomo Giroldi (1422-1446), Andrea Bianco (1436*1448) Giovanni Leardo (1442-1452), Alvise Cadamosto, who was associated with the Portuguese explorers on the west coast of Africa (1454-1456) and whose Portolarw was printed at Venice in 1490, and Fra Mauro (1457).

Associated with Ancona are Grazioso Benincasa and his son Andreas, whose numerous charts were produced between 1461 and 1508, and Count Ortomano Freducci (1497-1 538). The earliest among Majorcan and Catalonian cartographers is Angelino Dulcert (132 5-1339) whom A. Managhi claims as a. Genoese, whose true name according to him was Angelino Dalorto. the 'central group being generally a, ¢, i;§ E§ , IF encircled by eight or sixteen satel asm, , lite groups. In the course of time Auxthe centres of radiation of all these Qtr gi, groups had imposed upon them ag-if ornate rose dei venti, or wind roses, such as may still be seen upon our compass-cards. Each chart was fur- nished with a scale of miles. These miles, however, were not the ordi- nary Roman miles of 1000 paces or 5000 ft., but smaller miles of Greek or Oriental origin, of which six were equal to five Roman miles, and as the latter were equal to 1480 metres, the Portolano miles had a length of only 1233 metres, and 75-2 of the former, and go-3 of the latter were equal to a degree. The difference; between these miles' was known, however, only to the more learned, among the map-makers, and when the charts were extended to the Atlantic seaboard -the two were assumed to be 1dent1cal. On these old charts the Mediter- ranean is delineated with surprising

tween the Straits of Gibraltar and Beirut in Syria amounts upon them to about 3000 Portolano miles, equal in lat. 36° N. to 4O'9°, as compared with an actual difference of 4I'2°, and a difference of 61° assumed by Ptolemy. There exists, however, a

serious error of orientation, due, ac- cording to Professor H. Wagner, to

the inexperience of the cartographers

FIG. 22.-Fra Mauro (1457).