Le Fréne. The story is in both cases more human and less repugnant than the, in some respects, similar story of Griselda. Marie's Ysopet is translated from an English original which she erroneously attributed to Alfred the Great, who had, she said, translated it from the Latin. The collection includes many-fables that have come down from Phaedrus, some Oriental stories derived from lewish sources, with many popular apologies that belong to the Renard cycle, and differ from those of older origin in that they are intended to amuse rather than to instruct. Marie describes the misery of the poor under the feudal régime, but she preaches resignation rather than revolt. The popularity of this collection is attested by the twenty-three MSS. of it that have been preserved. Another poem attributed to Marie de France is L'Espurgatoire Seint Patriz, a translation from the Traclaius de purgatorio S. Patricii (c. 1 185) of Henri de Salterey, which brings her activity down almost to the close of the century.
See Die Fabeln der Marie de France (1898), edited by Karl Warnke with the help of materials left by Eduard Mall; and Die Lais der Marie de France (2nd ed., 1900), edited by Karl Warnke, with comparative notes by Reinhold Kohler; the two works being vols. vi. and iii. of the Bibliotlieca Norrnannica of Hermann Suchier; also an extremely interesting article by Joseph Bédier in the Revue der deux mondes (Oct. 1891); another by Alice Kemp-Welch in the Nineleenlh Century (Dec. 1907). For an analysis of the Lair see Revue de philologie française, viii. 161 seq.; Karl Warnke, Die Quellen der Esope der Marie de France (1900). The Lais were first published in 1819 by B. de Roquefort. L'Espurgatoire Seint Patriz was edited by T. A. jenkins (Philadelphia, 1894). Some of the Lays Evere paraphrased by Arthur O'Shaughnessy in his Lays of France 1872).
MARIE DE’ MEDICI (1573-1642), queen consort and queen regent of France, daughter of Francis de' Medici, grand duke of Tuscany, and Joanna, an Austrian archduchess, was born in Florence on the 26th of April 1573. After ]oanna's death in 1578 duke Francis married the notorious Bianca Capello, and the grand-ducal children were brought up away from their father at the Pitti Palace in Florence, where after the death of her brother and sister and the marriage of her elder sister Eleonora, duchess of Mantua, a companion was chosen for Marie, this being Leonora Dori, afterwards known as Leonora Galigai. She received a good education in company with her half-br0ther Antonio. After many projects of marriage for Marie had failed Henry IV. of France, who was under great monetary obligations to the house of Medici, offered himself as a suitor although his marriage with Marguerite de Valois was not yet dissolved; but the marriage was not celebrated until October 1600. Her eldest son, the future Louis XIII., was born at Fontainebleau in September of the next year; the other children who survived were Gaston duke of Orleans; Elizabeth queen of Spain; Christine duchess of Savoy; and Henrietta Maria queen of England. During her husband's lifetime Marie de' Medici showed little sign of political taste or ability; but after his murder in 1610 when she became regent, she devoted herself to affairs with unfailing regularity and developed an inherited passion for power. She gave her confidence chiefly to Concini, the husband of Leonora Galigai, who squandered the public money and secured a series of important charges with the title of Maréchal d'Ancre. Under the regent's lax and capricious rule the princes of the blood and the great nobles of the kingdom revolted; and the queen, too weak to assert her authority, consented at Sainte Menehould (May 15, 1614) to buy off the discontented princes. In 1616 her policy was strengthened by the accession to her councils of Richelieu, who had come to the front at the meeting of the states general in 1614; but Louis XIII., who was now sixteen years old, was determined to throw off the tutelage of his mother and Concini. By his orders Concini was murdered, Leonora Galigai was tried for sorcery and beheaded, Richelieu was banished to his bishopric, and the queen was exiled to Blois. After two years of virtual imprisonment she escaped in 1619 and became the centre of a new revolt. Louis XIII. easily dispersed the rebels, but through the mediation of Richelieu was reconciled with his mother, who was allowed to hold a small court at Angers, and resumed her place in the royal council in 1621. But differences between her and the cardinal rapidly arose, and the queen mother intrigued to drive Richelieu again from court. For a single day the journée des dupes, the 12th of November 1630, she seemed to have succeeded; but the triumph of Richelieu was followed by her exile to Compiégne, whence she escaped in 1631 to Brussels. From that time till her death at Cologne on the 3rd of July 1642 she intrigued in vain against the cardinal. Among contemporary authorities for the history of Marie de Medici, see Mathieu de Morgues, Deux faces de la vie et de la mort de Marie de Ikfédicis (Antwerp, 1643); j. B. Matthieu, Eioge historical de Marie de Médicis (Paris, 1626); Florentin du Ruau, Le Tableau de la régence de Marie de Médicis (Poitiers, 1615); F . E. Mézeray, Histnire de la mere et du jils, on de Marie de M édicis et de Louis XIII. (Amsterdam, 1730); and A. P. Lord, The Regency of Marie de Médicis (London, . 1904). For the political history see the bibliographies to HENRY IV. and I 0U1s XIII.
There are lives by Thiroux d'Arc0nville (3 vols., Paris, 1774) by Miss ]. S. H. Pardoe (London, 1852, and again 1890); and by B. Zeller, Henri IV. et Marie de Médicis (Paris, 1877). There is a technical discussion of the causes of her death in A. Masson's La Sorcellerie ei la science des poisons au xviit siecie (Paris, 1904), and the rhinutest details of her private life are in L. Batiff0l's La Vie iriiime d'une reine de France (Paris, 1906; Eng. trans., 1908).
MARIE GALANTE, an island in the French West Indies. It lies in 15° 55' N. and 61° 17' W., 16 m. S.E. of Guadeloupe, of which it is a dependency. It is nearly circular in shape and 55 sq. m. in area. A rocky limestone plateau, rising in the east to a height of 675 ft., occupies the centre of the island, and from it the land descends in a series of well-wooded terraces to the sea. The shores are rocky, there are no harbours, and the road stead off Grand Bourg is difficult of access, owing to the surrounding reefs. The climate is healthy and the soil rich; sugar, coffee and cotton being the chief products. The largest town is Grand Bourg (pop. 6901) on the south-west coast. The island was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and received its name from the vessel on which he was sailing. The French who settled here in 1648 suffered numerous attacks both from the Dutch and the British, but since 1766, except for a short period of British rule in the early part of the 19th century, they have held undisturbed possession.
MARIE LESZCZYNSKA (1703~1768), queen consort of France, was born at Breslau on the 23rd of June 1703, being the daughter of Stanislas Leszczynski (who in 1704 became king of Poland) and of Catherine Opalinska. During a temporary flight from Warsaw the child was lost, and eventually discovered in a stable; on another occasion she was for safety's sake hidden in an oven. In his exile Stanislas found his chief consolation in superintending the education of his daughter. Madame de Prie first suggested the Polish princess as a bride for Louis duke of Bourbon, but she was soon betrothed not to him but to Louis XV., a step which was the outcome of the jealousies of the houses of Condé and Orleans, and was everywhere regarded as a rnésalliance for the French king. The marriage took place at Fontainebleau on the 5th of September 1725. Marie's one attempt to interfere in politics, an effort to prevent the disgrace of the duke of Bourbon, was the beginning of her husband's alienation from her; and after the birth of her seventh child Louise, Marie was practically deserted by Louis, who openly avowed his liaison with Louise de Nesle, comtesse de Mailly, who was replaced in turn by her sisters Pauline marquise de Vintimille, and Marie Anne, duchess de Chateauroux, and these by Madame de Pompadour. In the meantime the queen saw her father Stanislas established in Lorraine, and the affectionate intimacy which she maintained with him was the chief consolation of her harassed life. After a momentary reconciliation with Louis during his illness at Metz in 1744, Marie shut herself up more closely with her own circle of friends until her death at Versailles on the 24th of June 1768.
See V. des Diguieres, Lettres inédiles de la reine Marie Leczinska et de Za duchesse de Luynes au President Hénault (1886); Marquise des Réaux, Le Roi Stanislas et Marie Leczinska (1895); P. de Raynal, Le Mariage d'un roi (Paris, 1887); H. Gauthier Villars, Le Mariage de Louis XV. d'apres des documents nouveaux (1900); P. de Nolhac, La Reine Marie Leczinska (1900) and Louis X V. ei Marie Leczynska (1900); P. Boyé, Lettres du roi Stanislas a Marie Leszczynska 1754-1766 (Paris and Nancy, 1901); and C. Stryienski's book on Marie joséphs de Saxe (La Mere des trois derniers Bourbons, Paris, 1902). See also the memoirs of President Hénault and of the due de Luynes (ed. Dussieux and Soulié, 1860, &c.).