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LOUISIANA


Boisbriant, ad interim 1724-1726
Périer 1726-1733
Sieur de Bienville 1733-1743
Marquis de Vaudreuil 1743-1753
L. Billouart, Chevalier de Kerlerec 1753-1763
D’Abbadie 1763-1765
Philippe Aubry 1765-1769
Spanish Domination 1762 (1769)-1803.
Antonio de Ulloa[1] 1766-1768
Alejandro O’Reilly[2] 1769-1770
Luis de Unzaga 1770-1777
Bernardo de Galvez[3] 1777-1785
Estevan Miró (ad interim 1785-1786) 1785-1791
F. L. Hector, Baron de Carondelet 30 Dec. 1791-1797
M. Gayoso de Lemos (died in office) 1797-1799
Francisco Bouligny, José M. Vidal, acting military and civil-political governors 1799  
Sebastian de Casa Calvo de la Puerta, Marquis de Casa Calvo 1799-1801
Juan M. de Salcedo 1801-1803
French Domination 1800-1803.[4]
Laussat, Colonial Prefect 30 Nov.-20 Dec. 1803
American Domination since 1803.
Territorial Period.
William C. C. Claiborne (appointed 1803) 1804-1812
Statehood Period.
William C. C. Claiborne, Democratic Republican 1812-1816
Jacques Villeré, Democratic Republican 1816-1820
Thomas B. Robertson, Democratic Republican (resigned) 1820-1822
Henry S. Thibodaux, Democratic Republican (acting) 1822-1824
Henry S. Johnson, Democratic Republican 1824-1828
Pierre Derbigny, Democratic Republican (died in office) 1828-1829
Armand Beauvais and Jacques Dupré (acting) 1829-1831
André B. Roman, Whig 1831-1835
Edward D. White, Whig 1835-1839
André B. Roman, Whig 1839-1843
Alfred Mouton, Whig 1843-1846
Isaac Johnson, Democrat 1846-1850
Joseph Walker, Democrat 1850-1853
Paul O. Hébert, Democrat 1853-1856
Robert C. Wickliffe, Democrat 1856-1860
Thomas O. Moore, Democrat 1860-1862
George F. Shepley, Military Governor 1862-1864
Henry W. Allen, Confederate 1864-1865
Michael Hahn, Unionist and Military 1864-1865
James M. Wells, Democrat (acting) 1865-1867
Benjamin F. Flanders, Military 1867  
Joshua Baker, Military 1867-1868
Henry C. Warmoth, Republican 1868-1873
Pinckney B. S. Pinchback, Republican (acting) 1873  
John McEnery,[5] Democrat-Liberal Republican 1873  
William P. Kellogg, Radical Republican 1873-1877
Stephen B. Packard,[6] Radical Republican (contestant) 1877  
Francis T. Nicholls, Democrat 1877-1880
Louis A. Wiltz, Democrat (died in office) 1880-1881
Samuel D. McEnery, Democrat (Lieutenant-Governor, succeeded) 1881-1884
Samuel D. McEnery, Democrat 1884-1888
Francis T. Nicholls, Democrat 1888-1892
Murphy J. Foster, Democrat 1892-1900
William W. Heard, Democrat 1900-1904
Newton C. Blanchard, Democrat 1904-1908
Jared Y. Sanders,[7] Democrat 1908  

Bibliography.—Compare the bibliography under New Orleans and consult also the following. For general description: The Geology and Agriculture of Louisiana (Baton Rouge, Agric. Exper. Station, pts. 1-6, 1892-1902); also publications of U.S. Geological Survey, e.g. Water Supply and Irrigation Papers, No. 101, “Underground Waters of Southern Louisiana.” For fauna and flora: publications of U.S. Biological Survey (Department of Agriculture, Bibliographies). For climate: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Climate and Crop Service, Louisiana series (monthly). For soil and agriculture: the above state geological report and material on irrigation in publications of the U.S. Geological Survey and in the U.S. Census publications; also Commissioners of Agriculture of the State of Louisiana, Annual Report (Baton Rouge, biennial until 1899); State Agricultural Society, Proceedings (annual); Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Bulletin of the Agricultural Experiment Station and Biennial Report of same (Baton Rouge); U.S. Department of Agriculture, various publications of the divisions of botany, agrostology, pomology, forestry, farmers’ bulletins, &c. For manufactures and other industries: primarily the publications of the national Census, 1900, and preceding decades. For commerce and communications: Railroad Commissioners of Louisiana, Annual Report (New Orleans, 1900 ff.); U.S. Interstate Commerce Commission, Statistics of Railways (annual, Washington); on river navigation and river improvements, especially of the Mississippi, an enormous mass of material in the Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army (consult Index to Reports of same, 1866-1900, 3 vols., Washington, 1902, and cp. article on Mississippi River); on river commerce see U.S. Census of 1880, vol. 4 (report on steam navigation of the United States by T. C. Purdy), and Census of 1890 (report on transportation by T. J. Vivian; Rivers of the Mississippi Valley). For population: various national censuses and Bulletins of the Bureau of Census, 1900, e.g. No. 8, “Negroes in the United States”; on the Acadians, In Acadia, The Acadians in Song and Story (New Orleans, 1893; compiled by M. A. Johnston). For pictures of Creole life and traits, George W. Cable, The Creoles of Louisiana (New York, 1884), and his later writings; but Mr Cable’s views of the Creoles are very unpopular in Louisiana; for other views of them, and for a guide to the English and Creole literature of Louisiana, consult Alcée Fortier, Louisiana Studies—Literature, Customs and Dialects, History and Education (New Orleans, 1894). For administration: see reports of the various executive officers of the state (Baton Rouge); the various constitutions are printed in the report of the Secretary of State, as well as in B. Perley Poore’s Constitutions (2 vols., Washington, 1877); a special account of the government of the territorial period may be found in D. Y. Thomas, History of Military Government in Newly Acquired Territory of the United States (Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, vol. xx. No. 2, 1904); for the Civil War and Reconstruction period compare below, also American Historical Association, Annual Report, 1892; (for courts during Civil War); also John R. Ficklen, History and Civil Government of Louisiana (Chicago, New York, c. 1899), a brief and popular account; on education, in addition to the Biennial Reports of the Board of Education, consult annual reports of the U.S. Commissioner of Education.

For history: the standard work is that of Charles E. A. Gayarré, coming down to the war, based on deep and scholarly research, and greatly altered in successive editions. The style is that of the classic school, that of Prescott and Motley, full of colour, characterization and spirit. The editions are as follows: Romance of the History of Louisiana (New York, 1837, 1848); Histoire de la Louisiane (2 vols., Nouvelle Orléans, 1846-1847); Louisiana: its Colonial History and Romance (N.Y., 1851); Louisiana: its History as a French Colony, Third Series of Lectures (N.Y., 1852); then, based upon the preceding, History of Louisiana: The French Domination (2 vols., N.Y., 1854) and The Spanish Domination (N.Y., 1854); The American Domination (N.Y., 1867); and third edition (4 vols., New Orleans, 1885). More important for the recent period is Alcée Fortier; A History of Louisiana (N.Y., 4 vols., 1904) devoting two volumes to American domination. The History and General Description of New France of P. F. X. de Charlevoix (best ed. by J. G. Shea, New York, 1866, 6 vols.) is a famous old work, but now negligible. Judge F. X. Martin’s History of Louisiana (2 vols., New Orleans, 1827-1829, later ed. by J. F. Condon, continued to 1861, New Orleans, 1882) is also valuable and supplements Gayarré. Le Page du Pratz, author of Histoire de la Louisiane (3 vols., Paris, 1758; 2 vols., London, 1763), was the first historian of Louisiana. Berquin-Duvallon, Vue de la colonie espagnole du Mississippi (Paris, 1805; published in English under the name of John Davis, New York, 1806); L. N. Baudry de Lozières, Voyage à la Louisiane (Paris, 1802) and Second Voyage à la Louisiane (Paris, 1803) may be mentioned among the travels just preceding, and A. Stoddard, Sketches of Louisiana (New York, 1811), among those just following the establishment of American dominion. The Histoire de la Louisiane, et de la cession de colonie par la France aux États-Unis (Paris, 1829; in English, Philadelphia, 1830) by Barbé-Marbois has great importance in diplomatic history. The rarest and most valuable of early memoirs and much archive material are embodied in Benj. F. French’s Historical Collections of Louisiana (5 series, N.Y., 1846-1853) and Historical Collections of Louisiana and Florida, New Series (N.Y., 1869, 1875). Documentary materials on the greater “Louisiana” between the Gulf of Mexico and Canada will be found in the Jesuit Relations, edited by R. G. Thwaites (Cleveland, 1896 ff.); and on early voyages in Pierre Margry, Découvertes et établissements des Français (6 vols., Paris, 1879-1888). John G. Shea published an edition of Louis Hennepin’s Description of Louisiana ... Translated from the Edition of 1683, &c. (New York, 1880). On this greater “Louisiana” the student should also, consult the works of Francis Parkman. And see publications of the Louisiana

  1. Did not openly assume power or supersede Aubry.
  2. Captain-general charged to establish order and settle Unzaga as governor.
  3. At first, till 1779, only acting governor.
  4. Actual exercise of power 20 days.
  5. Counted out by partisan returning-board and not recognized by U.S. government.
  6. Not recognized by U.S. government.
  7. Elected U.S. Senator 1910; accepted, but afterward withdrew.