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Study of Shakespeare (1880); Elze, Notes, and Hazlitt Dramatic Lit. of the Age of Elizabeth; Fortnightly Review, xiii., lxxi., and Sept.–Oct., 1905; Jusserand, Hist. of English Lit.; the Cambridge Hist. of English Lit.; Seccombe and Allen, Age of Shakespeare (vol. ii. 3rd ed., 1909), and the separate editions of Dr Faustus, Edward II., &c. The main sources of Marlowe were as follows: for Tamburlaine, Pedro Mexia’s Life of Timur in his Silva (Madrid, 1543), anglicized by Fortescue in his Foreste (1571) and Petrus Perondinus Vita Magni Tamerlanis (1551); for Faustus: a contemporary English version of the Faust-buch or Historia von D. Johann Fausten (Frankfort, 1587), and for Edward II., the Chronicles of Fabyan (1516), Holinshed (1577) and Stow (1580).  (T. Se.) 

MARLOWE, JULIA [Sarah Frances Frost] (1870–  ), American actress, was born near Keswick, England, on the 17th of August 1870, and went with her family to America in 1875. Her first formal appearance on the stage was in New York in 1887, although she had before that travelled with a juvenile opera company in H.M.S. Pinafore, and afterwards was given such parts as Maria in Twelfth Night in Miss Josephine Riley’s travelling company. Her first great success was as Parthenia in Ingomar, and her subsequent presentations of Rosalind, Viola, and Julia in The Hunchback confirmed her position as a “star.” In 1894 she married Robert Taber, an actor, with whom she played until their divorce in 1900. Subsequently she had great success as Barbara Frietchie in Clyde Fitch’s play of that name, and other dramas; and from 1904 to 1907 she acted with E. H. Sothern in a notable series of Shakespeare plays, as well as in modern drama.

MARLY-LE-ROI, a village of northern France in the department of Seine-et-Oise, 5 m. N. by W. of Versailles by road. Pop. (1906), 1409. Notwithstanding some fine country houses, Marly is dull and unattractive, and owes all its celebrity to the sumptuous château built towards the end of the 17th century by Louis XIV., and now destroyed. It was originally designed as a simple hermitage to which the king could occasionally retire with a few of his more intimate friends from the pomp of Versailles, but gradually it grew until it became one of the most ruinous extravagances of the Grand Monarque. The central pavilion (inhabited by the king himself) and its twelve subsidiary pavilions were intended to suggest the sun surrounded by the signs of the zodiac. Seldom visited by Louis XV., and wholly abandoned by Louis XVI., it was demolished after the Revolution, its art treasures having previously been dispersed, and the remains now consist of a large basin, the Abreuvoir, a few mouldering ivy-grown walls, some traces of parterres with magnificent trees, the park, and the forest of 81/2 sq. m., one of the most pleasant promenades of the neighbourhood of Paris, containing the shooting preserves of the President of the Republic.

Close to the Seine, half-way between Marly-le-Roi and St Germain, is the village of Port-Marly, and one mile farther up is the hamlet of Marly-la-Machine. Here, in 1684, an immense hydraulic engine, driven by the current of the river, was erected; it raised the water to a high tower, where the aqueduct of Marly began (700 yds. in length, 75 in height, with 36 arches, still well-preserved), carrying the waters of the Seine to Versailles.

MARMALADE (adopted from Fr. marmelade, from marmelo, a quince, derived through the Lat. melimelum, from Gr. μέλι, honey, and μῆλον, an apple, an apple grafted on a quince), a preserve originally made of quinces, but now commonly of Seville oranges. The “marmalade-tree” (Lucuma mammosa) bears a fruit whose thick pulp resembles marmalade and is called natural marmalade. “Marmalade box” is the name of the fruit of the Genipa Americana, which opens in the same manner as a walnut, the nut being replaced by a soft pulp.

MARMANDE, a town of south-western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Lot-et-Garonne, 35 m. N.W. of Agen, on the Southern railway from Bordeaux to Cette. Pop. (1906), town 6373; commune, 9748. Marmande is situated at the confluence of the Trec with the Garonne on the right bank of the latter river, which is here crossed by a suspension bridge. Public institutions include the sub-prefecture, the tribunals of first instance and commerce, the communal college and schools of commerce and industry and of agriculture. Apart from the administrative offices, the only building of importance is the church of Nôtre-Dame, which dates from the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. The graceful windows of the nave, the altarpiece of the 18th century, and in particular, the Renaissance cloister adjoining the south side, are its most interesting features. Among the industries are iron-founding, steam sawing, the manufacture of woollens, carriage-making, cooperage and brandy-distilling. There is a large trade in wine, plums, cattle, grain and other agricultural produce.

Marmande was a bastide founded about 1195 on the site of a more ancient town by Richard Cœur de Lion, who granted it a liberal measure of self-government. Its position on the banks of the Garonne made it an important place of toll. It soon passed into the hands of the counts of Toulouse, and was three times besieged and taken during the Albigensian crusade, its capture by Amaury de Montfort in 1219 being followed by a massacre of the inhabitants. It was united to the French crown under Louis IX. A short occupation by the English in 1447, an unsuccessful siege by Henry IV. in 1577 and its resistance of a month to a division of Wellington’s army in 1814, are the chief events in its subsequent history.

MARMIER, XAVIER (1809–1892), French author, was born at Pontarlier, in Doubs, on the 24th of June 1809. He had a passion for travelling, and this he combined throughout his life with the production of literature. After journeying in Switzerland, Belgium and Holland, he was attached in 1835 to the Arctic expedition of the “Recherche”; and after a couple of years at Rennes as professor of foreign literature, he visited (1842) Russia, (1845) Syria, (1846) Algeria, (1848–1849) North and South America, and numerous volumes from his pen were the result. In 1870 he was elected to the Academy, and he was for many years prominently identified with the Sainte-Geneviève library. He did much to encourage the study of Scandinavian literature in France, publishing translations of Holberg, Oehlenschläger and others. He died in Paris on the 11th of October 1892.

MARMONT, AUGUSTE FRÉDÉRIC LOUIS VIESSE DE, Duke of Ragusa (1774–1852), marshal of France, was born at Châtillon-sur-Seine, on the 20th of July 1774. He was the son of an ex-officer in the army who belonged to the petite noblesse and adopted the principles of the Revolution. His love of soldiering soon showing itself, his father took him to Dijon to learn mathematics prior to entering the artillery, and there he made the acquaintance of Bonaparte, which he renewed after obtaining his commission when he served in Toulon. The acquaintance ripened into intimacy; Marmont became General Bonaparte’s aide-de-camp, remained with him during his disgrace and accompanied him to Italy and Egypt, winning distinction and promotion to general of brigade. In 1799 he returned to Europe with his chief; he was present at the coup d’état of the 18th Brumaire, and organized the artillery for the expedition to Italy, which he commanded with great effect at Marengo. For this he was at once made general of division. In 1801 he became inspector-general of artillery, and in 1804 grand officer of the Legion of Honour, but was greatly disappointed at being omitted from the list of officers who were made marshals. In 1805 he received the command of a corps, with which he did good service at Ulm. He was then directed to take possession of Dalmatia with his army, and occupied Ragusa. For the next five years he was military and civil governor of Dalmatia, and traces of his beneficent régime still survive both in great public works and in the memories of the people. In 1808 he was made duke of Ragusa, and in 1809, being summoned by Napoleon to take part in the Austrian War, he marched to Vienna and bore a share in the closing operations of the campaign. Napoleon now made him a marshal and governor-general of all the Illyrian provinces of the empire. In July 1810 Marmont was hastily summoned to succeed Masséna in the command of the French army in the north of Spain. The skill with which he manœuvred his army during the year he commanded it has been always acknowledged. His relief of Ciudad Rodrigo in the autumn of 1811 in spite of the presence of the English army was a great feat, and in the manœuvring which preceded the battle of Salamanca he had