designer of gold and silver plate. Many of his interiors are very rich and harmonious although commonly over-elaborated. The craze for collecting china which was at its height in his time is illustrated in his lavish designs for receptacles for porcelain—in one of his plates there are more than 300 pieces of china on the chimney-piece alone. Marot was still living in 1718, and the date of his death is unknown.
We owe much of our knowledge of his work to the volume of his designs published at Amsterdam in 1712: Œuvres du Sieur D. Marot, architecte de Guillaume III. Roi de la Grande Bretagne, and to Receuil des planches des sieurs Marot, père et fils. In addition to decorative work these books contain prints of scenes in Dutch history, and engravings of the statues and vases, produced by Marot, at the Palace of Loo.
MARPLE, an urban district in the Hyde parliamentary division of Cheshire, England, 12 m. S.E. of Manchester, served by the Great Central, Midland & Sheffield and Midland railways, and the Cheshire lines. Pop. (1901), 5595. It lies on and above the valley of the Goyt, and its situation has brought the town into favour as a residential centre for those whose business lies in Manchester, Stockport, and the great manufacturing district to the west. Marple Hall, a beautiful Elizabethan mansion, is connected with the youth, and sometimes stated to be the birthplace, of John Bradshaw the regicide (1602–1659).
MARPRELATE CONTROVERSY, a war of pamphlets waged in 1588 and 1589 between a puritan writer who employed the pseudonym “Martin Marprelate” and defenders of the Established Church. Martin’s tracts are characterized by violent and personal invective against the Anglican dignitaries, by the assumption that the writer had numerous and powerful adherents and was able to enforce his demands for reform, and by a plain and homely style combined with pungent wit. While he maintained the puritan doctrines as a whole, the special point of his attack was the Episcopacy. The pamphlets were printed at a secret press established by John Penry, a Welsh puritan, with the help of the printer Robert Waldegrave, about midsummer 1588, for the issue of puritan literature forbidden by the authorities. The first tract by “Martin Marprelate,” known as the Epistle, appeared at Molesey in November 1588. It is in answer to A Defence of the Government established in the Church of Englande, by Dr. John Bridges, dean of Salisbury, itself a reply to earlier puritan works, and besides attacking the episcopal office in general assails certain prelates with much personal abuse. The Epistle attracted considerable notice, and a reply was written by Thomas Cooper, bishop of Winchester, under the title An Admonition to the People of England, but this was too long and too dull to appeal to the same class of readers as the Marprelate pamphlets, and produced little effect. Penry’s press, now removed to Fawsley, near Northampton, produced a second tract by Martin, the Epitome, which contains more serious argument than the Epistle but is otherwise similar, and shortly afterwards, at Coventry, Martin’s reply to the Admonition, entitled Hay any Worke for Cooper (March 1589). It now appeared to some of the ecclesiastical authorities that the only way to silence Martin was to have him attacked in his own railing style, and accordingly certain writers of ready wit, among them John Lyly, Thomas Nashe and Robert Greene, were secretly commissioned to answer the pamphlets. Among the productions of this group were Pappe with an Hatchet (Sept. 1589), probably by Lyly, and An Almond for a Parrat (1590), which, with certain tracts under the pseudonym of Pasquil, has been attributed to Nashe (q.v.). Some anti-Martinist plays or shows (now lost) performed in 1589 were perhaps also their work. Meanwhile, in July 1589, Penry’s press, now at Wolston, near Coventry, produced two tracts purporting to be by “sons” of Martin, but probably by Martin himself, namely, Theses Martinianae by Martin Junior, and The Just Censure of Martin Junior by Martin Senior. Shortly after this, More Work for Cooper, a sequel to Hay any Worke, was begun at Manchester, but while it was in progress the press was seized. Penry however was not found, and in September issued from Wolston or Haseley The Protestation of Martin Marprelate, the last work of the series, though several of the anti-Martinist pamphlets appeared after this date. He then fled to Scotland, but was later apprehended in London, charged with inciting rebellion, and hanged (May 1593). The authorship of the tracts has been attributed to several persons: to Penry himself, who however emphatically denied it and whose acknowledged works have little resemblance in style to those of Martin, to Job Throckmorton, and to Henry Barrow.
See, for list and full titles of the tracts, related documents, and discussion of the authorship, E. Arber’s Introductory Sketch to the Martin Marprelate Controversy (1880), which, however, gives no connected account of the matter. A good summary, with quotations from the pamphlets, will be found in H. M. Dexter’s Congregationalism (New York, 1880), pp. 129–202. See also articles on John Penry and Job Throckmorton in Dict. of Nat. Biography; and for the history of the press, Bibliographica, ii. 172–180. Maskell’s Martin Marprelate Controversy (1845) is of little service. The more important tracts have been reprinted by Petheram in his series of Puritan Discipline Tracts (1842–1860), in Arber’s English Scholar’s Library (1879–1880), in R. W. Bond’s edition of Lyly and in the editions of Nashe. (R. B. McK.)
MARQUAND, HENRY GURDON (1819–1902), American philanthropist and collector, was born in New York City on the 11th of April 1819. In 1839, upon the retirement from the jewelry business of his brother Frederick (1799–1882), who was a liberal benefactor of Yale College and of the Union Theological Seminary, he became his brother’s agent. He was one of the purchasers in 1868 of the Iron Mountain railroad, afterwards its president, and a director of the Missouri-Pacific system. He was the first honorary member of the American Institute of Architects, and president (1889–1902) of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, to which he made valuable presents and loans from his collection of paintings. He died in New York City, on the 26th of February 1902. His varied and valuable art collection and rare books were sold in 1903. He was a benefactor of Princeton University and other institutions. His son, Allan Marquand (b. 1853), graduated at Princeton in 1874, and in 1883 became professor of archaeology and art.
MARQUARDT, JOACHIM (1812–1882), German historian and writer on Roman antiquities, was born at Danzig on the 19th of April 1812. He studied at Berlin and Leipzig, held various educational appointments from 1833 onwards at Berlin, Danzig and Posen, and became in 1859 head of the gymnasium in Gotha, where he died on the 30th of November 1882. The dedication of his treatise Historiae equitum romanorum libri quatuor (1841) to Lachmann led to his being recommended to the publisher of W. A. Becker’s Handbuch der römischen Alterthümer to continue the work on the death of the author in 1846. It took twenty years to complete, and met with such success that a new edition was soon called for. Finding himself unequal to the task single-handed, Marquardt left the preparation of the first three volumes (Römisches Staatsrecht) to Theodor Mommsen, while he himself contributed vols. iv.-vi. (Römische Staatsverwaltung, 1873–1878; 2nd ed., 1881–1885, vol. v. by H. Dessau and A. von Domaszewski, vol. vi. by G. Wissowa) and vol. vii. (Das Privatleben der Römer, 1879–1882; 2nd ed., by A. Mau, 1886). Its clearness of style, systematic arrangement and abundant references to authorities ancient and modern, will always render it valuable to the student.
See E. Förstemann in Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, Bd. XX; R. Ehwald, Gedächtnisrede (progr. Gotha, 1883).
MARQUESAS or Mendaña Islands (Fr. Les Marquises), an archipelago of the Pacific Ocean lying between 7° 50′ and 10° 35′ S. and 138° 50′ and 140° 50′ W., and belonging to France. It extends over 250 m. from S.E. to N.W., and has a total area of 490 sq. m. The southern or Mendaña group consists of the islands Fatuhiva or Magdalena, Motane or San Pedro, Tahuata or Santa Christina and Hivaoa or Dominica, the last with a coast-line of more than 60 m. With these is often included the rocky islet of Fatuhuku or Hood, lying in mid-channel to the north of Hivaoa. The north-western or Washington group is formed of seven islands, the four largest being Huapu or Adams, Huahuna or Washington, Nukuhiva (70 m. in circumference) and Eiao. Along
- Most of the islands have each three or four alternative names.