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bench at Dublin for a Habeas Corpus, on the grounds that only when war was raging could courts-martial be endured, not while the court of king's bench sat. The court granted his application; but no ultimate decision was ever given, as Tone died before it could be arrived at.

In 1799 application was made to parliament for express sanction to martial law. The preamble of the act declared that “ The Rebellion still continues . . and stopped the ordinary course of justice and of the common law; and that many persons. . . who had been taken by H.M. forces . . . have availed themselves of such partial restoration of the ordinary course of the common law to evade the punishment of their crimes, whereby it had become necessary for parliament to interfere.” The act declared that martial law should prevail and be put in force Whether the ordinary courts were or were not open, &c. And nothing in the act could be held to take away, abridge or eliminate the acknowledged prerogative of war, for the public safety to resort to the exercise of martial law against open enemies or traitors, &c.

After the suppression of the rebellion an act of indemnity was passed in 1801.

In 1803 a similar act was passed by the parliament of the United Kingdom as it was after the Act of Union. In introducing it Mr Pitt stated: “The bill is not one to enable the government in Ireland to declare martial law in districts where insurrection exists, for that' is a power which His Majesty already possesses-the object will be to enable the lord-lieutenant, when any persons shall be taken in rebellion, to order them to be tried immediately by a court martial.” During the 19th century martial law was proclaimed by the British government in the following places:-

1. Barbados, 1805-1816. 6. Cephalonia, 1848.
2. Demerara, 1823. 7. Cape of Good Hope, 1834; 1849-1851.
3. Jamaica, 1831-1832; 1865.
4. Canada, 1837-1838. 8. St Vincent, 1863.
5. Ceylon, 1817 and 1848. 9. South Africa, 1899-1901.

The proclamation was always based on the grounds of necessity, where any local body of a representative character existed it and would seem that its assent was given, and an act of indemnity obtained after the suppression of the rebellion.

MARTIGNAC, JEAN BAPTISTE SYLVERE GAY, Vicomte de (1778-1832), French statesman, was born at Bordeaux on the 20th of June 1778. In 1798 he acted as secretary to Sieyés; then after serving for a while in the army, he turned to literature, producing several light plays. Under the Empire he practised with success as an advocate at Bordeaux, where in 1818 he became advocate-general of the sour royale. In 1819 he was appointed pracureur-général at Limoges, and in 1821 was returned for Marmande to the Chamber of Deputies, where he supported the policy of Villéle. In 1822 he was appointed councillor of state, in 1823 he accompanied the duc d'Angouléme to Spainas civil Commissary; in 1824 he was created a Viscount and appointed director-general of registration. In contact with practical politics his ultra-royalist views were gradually modified in the direction of the Doctrinaires, and on the fall of Villéle he was selected by Charles X. to carry out the new policy of compromise. On the 4th of January 1828 he was appointed minister of the interior, and, though not bearing the title of president, became the virtual head of the cabinet. He succeeded in passing the act abolishing the press censorship, and in persuading the king to sign the ordinances of the 16th of June 1828 on the Jesuits and the little seminaries. He was exposed to attack from both the extreme Left and the extreme Right, and when in April 1829 a coalition of these groups defeated him in the chamber, Charles X., who had never believed in the policy he represented, replaced him by the prince de Polignac. In March 1830 Martignac voted with the majority for the address protesting against the famous ordinances; but during the revolution that followed he remained true to his legitimise principles. His last public appearance was in defence of Polignac in the Chamber of Peers in December 1830. He died on the 3rd of April 1832.

Martignac published Bordeaux au mais de Mars ISI5 (Paris, 1830), and an Essai hisiorigue sur les revolutions d'Es{>ag1ie et Vintervention française de 1823 (Paris, 1832). See also E. Daudet, Le Ministére de M. de Martigizac (Paris, 1875).

MARTIGUES, a port of south-eastern France in the department of Bouches-du-Rhone, on the southern shore of the lagoon of Berre, and at the eastern extremity of that of Caronte, by which the former is connected with the Mediterranean. Pop. (1906), 4,178. Martigues is 23 m. W.N.W. of Marseilles by rail. Divided into three quarters by canals, the place has been called' the Venice of Provence. It has a harbour (used by coasting and fishing vessels), marine workshops, oil and soap manufactures and cod-drying works. A special industry consists in the preparation of boiiiargue from the roes of the grey mullet caught in the salt lagoons, which rivals Russian caviare.

Built in 1232 by Raymond Bérenger, count of Provence, Martigues was made a viscount ship by loanna I., queen of Naples. Henry IV. made it a principality, in favour of a princess of the house of Luxembourg. It afterwards passed into the hands of the duke of V illars.

MARTIN, ST (c. 316-400), bishop of Tours, was born of heathen parents at Sabaria (Stein am Agger) in Pannonia, about the year 316. When ten years old he became a catechumen, and at fifteen he reluctantly entered the army. While stationed at Amiens he divided his cloak with a beggar, and on the following night had the vision of Christ making known to his angels this act of charity to Himself on the part of “Martinus, still a catechumen." Soon afterwards he received baptism, and two years later, having left the army, he joined Hilary of Poitiers, who wished to make him a deacon, but at his own request ordained him to the humbler office of an exorcist. On a visit home he converted his mother, but his zeal against the Arians roused persecution against him and for some time he lived an ascetic life on the desert island of Gallinaria near Genoa. Between 360 and 370 he was again with Hilary at Poitiers, and founded in the neighbourhood the monasterium locociagense (Licugé). In 371-372 the people of Tours chose him for their bishop. He did much to extirpate idolatry from his diocese and from France, and to extend the monastic system. To obtain privacy for the maintenance of his personal religion, he established the monastery of Marmoutier-les-Tours (Martini monasterium) on the banks of the Loire. At Tréves, in 385, he entreated that the lives of the Priscillianist heretics should be spared, and he ever afterwards refused to hold ecclesiastical fellowship with those bishops who had sanctioned their execution. He died at Candes in the year 400, and is commemorated by the Roman Church on the 11th of November (duplex). He left no writings, the so-called Coiifessio being spurious. He is the patron saint of France and of the cities of Mainz and Würzburg. The Life by his disciple Sulpicius Severus is practically the only source for his biography, but it is full of legendary matter and chronological errors. Gregory of Tours gives a list of 206 miracles wrought by him after his death; Sidonius Apollinaris composed a metrical biography of him. The Feast of St Martin (Martinmas) took the place of an old pagan festival, and inherited some of its usages (such as the M artinsmiinnchen, M artinsfeuer, Martinshom and the like, in various parts of Germany); by this circumstance is probably to be explained the fact that Martin is regarded as the patron of drinking and jovial meetings, as well as of reformed drunkards. 1

See A. Dupuy, Geschichte des heiligen M artiiis (Schaffhausen, 1855); ]. G. Cazenove in Diet. chr. biog. iii. 838.

MARTIN (Martinus), the name of several popes.

MARTIN I. succeeded Theodore I. in June or July 649. He had previously acted as papal apocrisiarius at Constantinople, and was held in high repute for learning and virtue. Almost his first official act was to summon a synod (the first Lateran) for dealing with the Monothelite heresy. It met in the Lateran church, was attended by one hundred and five bishops (chiefly from Italy, Sicily and Sardinia, a few being from Africa and other quarters), held five sessions or “ secretarii ” from the 5th to the 31st of October 649, and in twenty canons condemned the Monothelite heresy, its authors, and the writings by which