took up arms against the Protestants of Perth, who, incited by Knox, had destroyed the Charterhouse, where many of the Scottish kings were buried. The reformers submitted on condition that no foreign garrison was to be imposed on Perth and that the religious questions in dispute should be brought before the Scottish parliament. Mary of Lorraine broke the spirit of this agreement by garrisoning Perth with Scottish troops in the pay of France. The lords of the Congregation soon assembled in considerable force on Cupar Muir. Mary retreated to Edinburgh and thence to Dunbar, while Edinburgh opened its gates to the reformers, who issued a proclamation (Oct. 21, 1559) claiming that the regent was deposed. The lords of the Congregation sought helpvfrom Elizabeth, while the regent had recourse to France, where an expedition under her cbrother, René of-Lorraine, marquis of Elbeuf, was already in preparation. Mary, with the assistance of a French contingent, began to fortify Leith. The strength of her opponents was increased by the defection of Chatelherault and his son Arran; and an even more serious danger was the treachery of her secretary Maitland, who betrayed her plans to the lords of the Congregation. In October 1559 they made an unsuccessful attack on Leith and the seizure of an English convoy on the way to their army by James Hepburn, earl of Bothwell, increased their difficulties. Mary entered Edinburgh and conducted a campaign in Fife. Meanwhile Maitland of Lethington had been at the English court, and an English fleet under William Winter was sent to the Forth in January 1560 to waylay Elbeuf's fleet, which was, however, driven back by a storm to Calais. Elbeuf had been commissioned by Francis I. and Mary to take over Mary's regency on account of her failing health. An English army under Lord Grey entered Scotland on the 29th of March 1560, and the regent received an asylum in Edinburgh castle, which was held strictly neutral by John Erskine. When she knew that she was dying Mary sent for the lords of the Congregation, with whom she pleaded for the maintenance of the French alliance. She even consented to listen to the exhortations of the preacher John Willock. She died on the 11th of June ISOO. Her body was taken to Reims and buried in the church of the nunnery of St Peter, of which her sister was abbess.
The chief sources for her history are the Calendar of State Papers for the reigns of Hem'y VIII. and Edward VI. in the Rolls Series; A. Teulet, Paprers délal . . . relatzfs d Vhzstozre de l'Ecosse au XVI° siecle (Paris, 3 vols., 1851), for the Bannatyne Club; Hamilton Papers, ed. J. Bain (Edinburgh, 2 vols., 1890-1899); Calendar of State Papers relating to Scotland and Mary Queen of Scots, 1547-1603 (Edinburgh, 2 vols., 1898-1900), &e. There is a Life in Miss Strickland's Queens of Scotland (vols. i.-ii.) based on original documents.
MARY OF MODENA [Maria Beatrice Anne Margaret Isabel D'Este] (1658-1718), queen of the English king James II., was the daughter of Alphonso IV., duke of Modena, and the Duchess Laura, of the Roman family Martinozzi. She was born at Modena on the 5th of October 1658. Her education was strict, and her own wish was to be a nun in a convent of the order of the Visitation founded by her mother. As a princess she was not free to choose for herself, and was selected, mainly by the king of France, Louis XIV., as the wife of James, duke of York, heir-presumptive to the English throne. The duke had become a Roman Catholic, and it was a point of policy with the French king to provide him with a Roman Catholic wife. Mary Beatrice of Este was chosen partly on the ground of her known religious zeal, but also because of her beauty. The marriage was celebrated by proxy on the 30th of September 1673. She reached England in November. In later life she confessed that her first feelings towards her husband could only be expressed by tears. In England the duchess, who was commonly spoken of as Madam East, was supposed to be an agent of the pope, who had indeed exerted himself to secure her consent. Her beauty and her fine manners secured her the respect of her brother-in-law, Charles II., and she lived on good terms with her husband's daughters by his first marriage, but she was always disliked by the nation. The birth of her first son (who died in infancy) on the 16th of January 1675 was regretted. During the Popish Plot, to which her secretary Coleman was a victim, she went abroad with her husband. After her husband's accession she suffered much domestic misery through his infidelity. Her influence on him was unfortunate, for she was a strong supporter of the Jesuit party which was in favour of extreme measures. Her second son, James Francis Edward, was born on the 10th of June (o.s.) 1688. The public refused to believe that the baby was Mary's child, and declared that a fraud had been perpetrated to secure a Roman Catholic heir. When the revolution had broken out she made the disastrous mistake of consenting to escape to France (Dec. 10, 1688) with her son. She urged her husband to follow her to France when it was his manifest interest to stay in England, and when he went to Ireland she pressed incessantly for his return. Her daughter, Louisa Maria, was born at St Germain on the 28th of June 1692. When her husband died on the 6th of September 1701, she succeeded in inducing King Louis to recognize her son as king of England, an act which precipitated the war of the Spanish Succession. Queen Mary survived her husband for seventeen years and her daughter for two. She received a pension of 100,000 crowns, which was largely spent in supporting Jacobite exiles. At the close of her life she had some success in obtaining payment of her jointure. She lived at St Germain or at Chaillot, a religious house of the Visitation. Her death occurred on the 7th of May 1718, and is said by Saint-Simon to have been that of a saint.
See Miss Strickland, Queens of England (vols. 9 and 10, London, 1846); Campana di Cavelli, Les Derniers Stuartsd Saint-Germain en-Laye (London, . 1871); and Martin Haile Mary of Modena (London, 1905).
MARY OF ORANGE (1631-1660), eldest daughter of, the English king Charles I., was born in London on the 4th of November 1631. Her father wished her to marry a son of Philip IV., king of Spain, while her cousin, the elector palatine, Charles Louis, was also a suitor for her hand, but both proposals fell through and she became the wife of a Dutch prince, William, son of Frederick Henry, prince of Orange. The marriage took place in London on the 2nd of May 1641, but owing to the tender years of the bride it was not consummated for several years. However in 1642 Mary crossed over to Holland with her mother, Queen Henrietta Maria, and in 1644, as the daughter-in-law of the stadtholder, she began to take her place in public life. In 1647 her husband, William II., succeeded his father as stadtholder, but three years later, just after his attempt to capture Amsterdam, he died; a son, afterwards the English king William III., being born to him a few days later (Nov. 14, I6§ O>." Mary was obliged to share the guardianship of her infant son with his grandmother Amelia, the widow of Frederick Henry, and with Frederick William, elector of Brandenburg; moreover, she was unpopular with the Dutch owing to her sympathies with her kinsfolk, the Stuarts, and at length public opinion having been further angered by the hospitality which she showed to her brothers, Charles II. and James, duke of York, she was forbidden to receive her relatives. From 1654 to 1657 the princess passed most of her time away from Holland. In 16 57 she was appointed regent on behalf of her son for the principality of Orange, but the difficulties of her position led her to implore the assistance of Louis XIV., and the French king answered by seizing Orange himself. The position both of Mary and of her son in Holland was greatly bettered through the restoration of Charles II. in Great Britain. In September 1000 Mary journeyed to England. She was taken ill of small-pox, and died in London on the 24th of December 1660, her death, says Bishop Burnet, being “ not much lamented.”
MARYBOROUGH, a market town and the county town of Queen's County, Ireland. Pop. (1901), 2957. It lies in the broad lowland east of the Slieve Bloom mountains, on the river Triogue, an affluent of the Barrow, and on the main line of the Great Southern & Western railway, by which it is 51 m. W.S.W. of Dublin. The town was chosen as county town in the reign of Mary (1556), in whose honour both town and county received their names. Its charter was granted in 1570,