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James Brice (acting) 1792
Thomas Sim Lee 1792-1794
John H. Stone 1794-1797
John Henry  Democratic Republican  1797-1798
Benjamin Ogle Federalist 1798-1801
John Francis Mercer Democratic Republican 1801-1803
Robert Bowie 1803-1806
Robert Wright[1] 1806-1808
James Butcher (acting) 1808-1809
Edward Lloyd Whig 1809-1811
Robert Bowie Democratic Republican 1811-1812
Levin Winder Federalist 1812-1815
Charles Ridgely 1815-1818
Charles Goldsborough 1818-1819
Samuel Sprigg Democratic Republican 1819-1822
Samuel Stevens, jun. 1822-1825
Joseph Kent 1825-1828
Daniel Martin Anti-Jackson 1828-1829
Thomas King Carroll Jackson Democrat 1829-1830
Daniel Martin Anti-Jackson 1830-1831
George Howard (acting) Whig 1831-1832
George Howard 1832-1833
James Thomas 1833-1835
Thomas W. Veazey 1835-1838
William Grason Democrat 1838-1841
Francis Thomas 1841-1844
Thomas G. Pratt Whig 1844-1847
Philip Francis Thomas Democrat 1847-1850
Enoch Louis Lowe 1850-1853
Thomas Watkins Ligon 1853-1857
Thomas Holliday Hicks American or
Know Nothing
Augustus W. Bradford Unionist 1861-1865
Thomas Swann 1865-1868
Oden Bowie Democrat 1868-1872
William Pinkney Whyte[2] 1872-1874
James Black Groome 1874-1876
John Lee Carroll 1876-1880
William T. Hamilton 1880-1884
Robert M. McLane 1884-1885
Henry Lloyd 1885-1888
Elihu E. Jackson 1888-1892
Frank Brown 1892-1896
Lloyd Lowndes Republican 1896-1900
John Walter Smith Democrat 1900-1904
Edwin Warfield 1904-1908
Austin L. Crothers 1908-

Bibliography.Publications of the Maryland Geological Survey (Baltimore, 1897); Maryland Weather Service Climatology and Physical Features, biennial reports (Baltimore, 1892-  ); United States Census; Reports of the U.S. Fish Commissioner and Bureau of Fisheries (Washington, 1871); State Department, Maryland Manual, a Compendium of Legal, Historical and Statistical Information (Baltimore, 1900-  ); B. C. Steiner, Citizenship and Suffrage in Maryland (Baltimore, 1895), an historical review of the subject; J. W. Harry, The Maryland Constitution of 1851, Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science (Baltimore, 1902), contains an account of the agitation from 1835 to 1850 for constitutional reform; B. C. Steiner, History of Education in Maryland, Circulars of Information of the United States Bureau of Education (Washington, 1894), a general historical survey of the common schools, public and private, and a particular account of each college, university and professional school; A. D. Mayo, The Final Establishment of the American School System in West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia and Delaware, Report of the Commissioner of Education (Washington, 1905) contains an interesting account of the development of the public school system of the state from 1864 to 1900; F. S. Adams, Taxation in Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Studies (Baltimore, 1900), an historical account of the sources of the state’s revenue and administration of its taxing system; A. V. Bryan, History of State Banking in Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Studies (Baltimore, 1899), a careful study of the state’s experience with banks from 1790 to 1864; J. L. Bozman, History of Maryland from 1633 to 1660 (Baltimore, 1837), a compilation of much of the more important material relating to the early history of the province; J. V. L. McMahon, An Historical View of the Government of Maryland from its Colonization to the Present Day (Baltimore, 1833), an able treatment of the subject by a learned jurist; J. T. Scharf, History of Maryland (Baltimore, 1879), the most extensive general history of the state, but it contains numerous errors and the arrangement is poor; W. H. Browne, Maryland: the History of a Palatinate (Boston, 1884 and 1895), an excellent outline of the colonial history; N. D. Mereness, Maryland as a Proprietary Province (New York, 1901), a constitutional history of the province in the light of its industrial and social development, contains a bibliography; and Bernard C. Steiner, Maryland during the English Civil War (2 vols., Baltimore, 1906-1907), one of the Johns Hopkins University Studies. (N. D. M.)

MARYPORT, a market town and seaport in the Cockermouth parliamentary division of Cumberland, England, 25 m. W.S.W. of Carlisle, on the Maryport & Carlisle railway. Pop. of urban district (1901), 11,897. It is irregularly built on the shore of the Irish Sea and on the cliffs above, at the mouth of the river Ellen. Until 1750 there were only a few huts here, the spot being called Ellenfoot, but at this time the harbour was built by Humphrey Senhouse. In 1892 Maryport became an independent port with Workington, Whitehaven and Millom subordinate to it. Coal and pig-iron are exported from the mining district inland, and shipbuilding is carried on. There are also rope and sail works, iron-foundries, saw-mills, breweries and tanneries. On the hill north of the town there is a Roman fort which guarded the coast, and many remains of this period have been discovered. The fort was called Uxellodunum.

MARZABOTTO, a village of Emilia, Italy, in the province of Bologna, 17 m. S.S.W. of Bologna by rail. Pop. (1901), 617 (village); 5272 (commune). It lies in the valley of the Reno, 443 ft. above sea-level. In and below the grounds of the Villa Aria, close to it, are the remains of an Etruscan town of the 5th century B.C., protected on the west by the mountains, on the east and south by the river, which by a change of course has destroyed about half of it. The acropolis was just below the villa: here remains of temples were found. The town lay below the modern high-road and was laid out on a rectangular plan divided by main streets into eight quarters, and these in turn into blocks or insulae. Cemeteries were found on the east and north of the site. The name of the place is unknown: it was partially inhabited later by the Gauls, but was not occupied by the Romans.

The discoveries of 1888-1889 (with references to previous works) are described by E. Brizio in Monumenti dei Lincei (1891), i. 249 sqq. (T. As.)

MASACCIO (1402-1429), Italian painter. Tommaso Guidi, son of a notary, Ser Giovanni di Simone Guidi, of the family of the Scheggia, who had property in Castel S. Giovanni di Val d’Arno, was born in 1402 (according to Milanesi, on the 21st of December 1401), and acquired the nickname of Masaccio, which may be translated “Lubberly Tom,” in consequence of his slovenly dressing and deportment. From childhood he showed a great inclination for the arts of design, and he is said to have studied under his contemporary Masolino da Panicale. In 1421, or perhaps 1423, he was enrolled in the gild of the speziali (druggists) in Florence, in 1424 in the gild of painters. His first attempts in painting were made in Florence, and then in Pisa. Next he went to Rome, still no doubt very young; although the statement that he returned from Rome to Florence, in 1420, when only eighteen or nineteen, seems incredible, considering the works he undertook in the papal city. These included a series of frescoes still extant in a chapel of the church of S. Clemente, a Crucifixion, and scenes from the life of St Catherine and of St Clement, or perhaps some other saint. Though much inferior to his later productions, these paintings are, for naturalism and propriety of representation, in advance of their time. Some critics, however, consider that the design only, if even that, was furnished by Masaccio, and the execution left to an inferior hand; this appears highly improbable, as Masaccio, at his early age, can scarcely have held the position of a master laying out work for subordinates; indeed Vasari says that Lubberly Tom was held in small esteem at all times of his brief life. In the Crucifixion subject the group of the Marys is remarkable; the picture most generally admired is that of Catherine, in the presence of Maxentius, arguing against and converting eight learned doctors. After returning to Florence, Masaccio was chiefly occupied in painting in the church of the Carmine, and especially in that “Brancacci Chapel” which he has rendered famous almost beyond rivalry in the annals of painting.

The chapel, had been built early in the 15th century by Felice Michele di Piuvichese Brancacci, a noble Florentine. Masaccio’s work in it began probably in 1423, and continued at intervals until

  1. Resigned on the 6th of May 1808.
  2. Resigned in 1874 to become (March 4, 1875) U.S. senator from Maryland.