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Lovelace—Lover, Samuel

missionary bodies. Lovedale is now a branch of the work of the United Free Church of Scotland.

See R. Young, African Wastes Reclaimed and Illustrated in the Story of the Lovedale Mission (London, 1902); J. Stewart, Lovedale, Past and Present (London, 1884), and Dawn in the Dark Continent (London, 1903); J. Wells, Stewart of Lovedale (London, 1908).

Lovelace, Richard (1618–1658), English poet, was born at Woolwich in 1618. He was a scion of a Kentish family, and inherited a tradition of military distinction, maintained by successive generations from the time of Edward III. His father, Sir William Lovelace, had served in the Low Countries, received the honour of knighthood from James I., and was killed at Grolle in 1628. His brother, Francis Lovelace, the “Colonel Francis” of Lucasta, served on the side of Charles I., and defended Caermarthen in 1644. His mother's family was legal; her grandfather had been chief baron of the exchequer. Richard was educated at the Charterhouse and at Gloucester Hall, Oxford, where he matriculated in 1634. Through the request of one of the queen's ladies on the royal visit to Oxford he was made M.A., though only in his second year at the university. Lovelace's fame has been kept alive by a few songs and the romance of his career, and his poems are commonly spoken of as careless improvisations, and merely the amusements of an active soldier. But the unhappy course of his life gave him more leisure for verse-making than opportunity of soldiering. Before the outbreak of the civil war in 1642 his only active service was in the bloodless expedition which ended in the Pacification of Berwick in 1640. On the conclusion of peace he entered into possession of the family estates at Bethersden, Canterbury, Chart and Halden in Kent. By that time he was one of the most distinguished of the company of courtly poets gathered round Queen Henrietta, who were influenced as a school by contemporary French writers of vers de société. He wrote a comedy, The Scholar, when he was sixteen, and a tragedy, The Soldier, when he was twenty-one. From what he says of Fletcher, it would seem that this dramatist was his model, but only the prologue and epilogue to his comedy have been preserved. When the rupture between king and parliament took place, Lovelace was committed to the Gatehouse at Westminster for presenting to the Commons in 1642 a petition from Kentish royalists in the king's favour. It was then that he wrote his most famous song, “To Althea from Prison.” He was liberated, says Wood, on bail of £40,000 (more probably £4000), and throughout the civil war was a prisoner on parole, with this security in the hands of his enemies. He contrived, however, to render considerable service to the king's cause. He provided his two brothers with money to raise men for the Royalist army, and befriended many of the king's adherents. He was especially generous to scholars and musicians, and among his associates in London were Henry Lawes and John Gamble, the Cottons, Sir Peter Lely, Andrew Marvell and probably Sir John Suckling. He joined the king at Oxford in 1645, and after the surrender of the city in 1646 he raised a regiment for the service of the French king. He was wounded at the siege of Dunkirk, and with his brother Dudley, who had acted as captain in his brother's command, returned to England in 1648. It is not known whether the brothers took any part in the disturbances in Kent of that year, but both were imprisoned at Petre House in Aldersgate. During this second imprisonment he collected and revised for the press a volume of occasional poems, many if not most of which had previously appeared in various publications. The volume was published in 1649 under the title of Lucasta, his poetical name—contracted from Lux Casta—for a lady rashly identified by Wood as Lucy Sacheverell, who, it is said, married another during his absence in France, on a report that he had died of his wounds at Dunkirk. The last ten years of Lovelace's life were passed in obscurity. His fortune had been exhausted in the king's interest, and he is said to have been supported by the generosity of friends. He died in 1658 “in a cellar in Longacre,” according to Aubrey, who, however, possibly exaggerates his poverty. A volume of Lovelace's Posthume Poems was published in 1659 by his brother Dudley. They are of inferior merit to his own collection.

The world has done no injustice to Lovelace in neglecting all but a few of his modest offerings to literature. But critics often do him injustice in dismissing him as a gay cavalier, who dashed off his verses hastily and cared little what became of them. It is a mistake to class him with Suckling; he has neither Suckling's easy grace nor his reckless spontaneity. We have only to compare the version of any of his poems in Lucasta with the form in which it originally appeared to see how fastidious was his revision. In many places it takes time to decipher his meaning. The expression is often elliptical, the syntax inverted and tortuous, the train of thought intricate and discontinuous. These faults—they are not of course to be found in his two or three popular lyrics, “Going to the Wars,” “To Althea from Prison,” “The Scrutiny”—are, however, as in the case of his poetical master, Donne, the faults not of haste but of over-elaboration. His thoughts are not the first thoughts of an improvisatory, but thoughts ten or twenty stages removed from the first, and they are generally as closely packed as they are far-fetched.

His poems were edited by W. C. Hazlitt in 1864.

Lovell, Francis Lovell, Viscount (1454–1487), supporter of Richard III., was son of John, 8th Baron Lovell. As a young man he served under Richard of Gloucester in the expedition to Scotland in 1480. After the death of Edward IV. he became one of his patron's strongest supporters. He had been created a Viscount on the 4th of January 1483, and whilst still Protector Richard made him Chief Butler. As soon as Richard became king, Lovell was promoted to be Lord Chamberlain. Lovell helped in the suppression of Buckingham's rebellion, and as one of Richard's most trusted ministers was gibbeted in Collingbourne's couplet with Catesby and Ratcliffe:—

“The catte, the ratte and Lovell our dogge
Rulyth all England under a hogge.”

He had command of the fleet which was to have stopped Henry Tudor's landing in 1485, but fought for Richard at Bosworth and after the battle fled to sanctuary at Colchester. Thence he escaped next year to organize a dangerous revolt in Yorkshire. When that failed he fled to Margaret of Burgundy in Flanders. As a chief leader of the Yorkist party he had a foremost part in Lambert Simnel's enterprise. With John de la Pole, earl of Lincoln, he accompanied the pretender to Ireland and fought for him at Stoke on the 16th of June 1487. He was seen escaping from the battle, but was never afterwards heard of; Bacon relates that according to one report he lived long after in a cave or vault (Henry VII., p. 37, ed. Lumby). More than 200 years later, in 1708, the skeleton of a man was found in a secret chamber in the family mansion at Minster Lovell in Oxfordshire. It is supposed that Francis Lovell had hidden himself there and died of starvation.

Collingbourne's couplet is preserved by Fabyan, Chronicle, p. 672. For the discovery at Minster Lovell see Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. i. and 5th ser. x.

 ((C. L. K.)) 

Lover, Samuel (1797–1868), Irish novelist, artist, songwriter and musician, was born in Dublin on the 24th of February 1797. His father was a stockbroker. Lover began life as an artist, and was elected in 1828 a member of the Royal Hibernian Academy—a body of which two years afterwards he became secretary. He acquired repute as a miniature painter, and a number of the local aristocracy sat to him for their portraits. His love for music showed itself at an early age. At a dinner given to the poet Tom Moore in 1818 Lover sang one of his own songs, which elicited special praise from Moore. One of his best known portraits was that of Paganini, which was exhibited at the Royal Academy. He attracted attention as an author by his Legends and Stories of Ireland (1832), and was one of the first writers for the Dublin University Magazine. He went to London about 1835, where, among others, he painted Lord Brougham in his robes as lord chancellor. His gifts rendered him popular in society; and he appeared often at Lady Blessington's evening receptions. There he sang several of his songs, which were so well received that he published them (Songs and Ballads, 1839). Some of them illustrated Irish superstitious, among these being “Rory O'More,” “The Angel's Whisper,” “The May Dew” and “The Four-leaved Shamrock.” In 1837 appeared Rory O'More, a National Romance, which at once made him a reputation as a novelist; he afterwards dramatized it for the Adelphi Theatre, London. In 1842 was published his best-known work, Handy Andy, an Irish Tale. Meanwhile his pursuits had