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Page:EB1911 - Volume 17.djvu/860

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stones were used in much smaller sizes. As time went on the art of masonry advanced till in England, in point of execution, it at length rivalled that of any country.-Tools.-The mason's tools may be grouped under five heads hammers and mallets, saws, chisels, setting-out and setting tools, and hoisting appliances.

There are several different kinds of iron hammers used by the stone worker; the mash hammer has a short handle and heavy head for use with chisels; the iron hammer, used in carving, Hammers in shape resembles a carpenter's mallet but is smaller; ""dMa"ets' the waller's hammer is used for roughly shaping stones in rubble work; the spalling hammer for roughly dressing stones in the quarry; the scrabbling-hammer, for the same purpose, has one end pointed for use on hard stone; the pick has along head pointed at both ends, weighs from 14 to 20 lb, and is used for rough dressing and splitting; the axe has a double wedge-shaped head and is used to bring stones to ja fairly level face preparatory to their being worked smooth; the patent axe, or patent hammer, is formed with a number of plates with sharpened edges bolted together to form a head; the mallet of hard wood is used for the finishing chisel work and carving; and the dummy is of similar shape but smaller. A hand saw similar to that used by the carpenter is used for cutting small soft stones. Larger blocks are cut with the two-handed saw worked by two men. For the largest blocks the S'""' frame saw is used, and is slung by a rope and pulleys fitted with balance weights to relieve the operator of its weight. The blade is of plain steel, the cutting action being supplied by sand with water as a lubricant constantly applied. There are perhaps even more varieties of chisels than of hammers. The point and the punch have very small cutting edges, a quarter CM I of an inch or less in width. 'Thelformer is used on the 5° S' harder and the latter on the softer varieties, of stone after the rough hammer dressing. The pitching tool has a wide thick edge and is used in rough dressing. jumpers are shafts of steel having a widened edge, and are used for boring holes in hard stone. Chisels are made with edges from a quarter-inch to one and a half inches wide: those that exceed this width are termed boasters. The claw chisel has a number of teeth from one-eighth to three-eighths wide, and is used on the surface of hard stones after the point has been usedi The drag is a semi-circular steel plate, the straight edge having teeth cut on it. It is used to level down the surfaces of soft stones. Cockscombs are used for the same purpose on mouldings and are shaped to various curves., Wedges of various sizes are used in splitting stones and are inserted either in holes made with the jumper or in chases cut with the stone-pick. The implements for setting out the work are similar to those used, by the bricklayer and other tradesmen, comprising the S°m"g'°"t rule, square, set square, the bevel capable of being set to and Setting . .

room any required angle, compasses, spirit level, plumb-rule and bob and mortar trowels. Gauges and moulds are required in sinking moulds to the proper section.


nippers (fig. I), or scissors, as they are sometimes termed, have two hooked arms fitting into notches in the opposite sides of Hoisting the block to be lifted. These arms are riveted together in the same way as a pair of scissors, the upper ends Appliances. . . .

having rings attached for the insertion of a rope or Cham Wh1Ch when pulled tight in the operation of lifting causes the hooked finds to g r1p the stone. Lewises (fig. 2.) are wedge-shaped p€C€S Of Steel which are fitted into a dovetailed mortise in thestone to be hoisted. They are also used for setting blocks too large to be set by hand, and are made in several forms. These are the usual methods of securing the stone to the hoisting rope or chain, the hoisting being effected by a pulley and fall, by a crane, or by other means, Scajaldmg.-For rubble walls single scaffolds, resting partly on the walls, similar to those used for brickwork (q.v.), are employed; for ashlar and other gauged stonework (see below) self supporting scaffolds are used with a second set of standards and ledgers erected close tr; the wall, the whole standing entirely independent. The I, .

eason or the use of this double scaffold is that otherwise holes for the putlogsto rest in would have to be left in the wall, and obviously in an ashlar stone wall it would be impossible properly to make these good on the removal of the scaffold (see further SCAFFOLD). Seasoning Stone.-Stone freshly quarried is full of sap, and thus admits of being easily worked. On being exposed to the air the sap dries out, and the stone becomes much harder in consequence. For this reason, and because carriage charges are lessened by the smaller bulk of the worked stone as compared with the rough block, the stone for a building is often specified to be quarry-worked. Vitruvius recommended that stone should be quarried in summer when driest, and that it should be seasoned by being allowed to lie two years before being used, so asto allow the natural sap to evaporate. In the erection of St Paul's Cathedral, Sir Christopher Wren required that the stone after being quarried should be exposed for three years on the sea—beach before its introduction into the building. The regular and determined form of bricks makes it to a large extent a matter of practice to enable a man to become a good bricklayer, but beyond these a continual exercise of judgment is required of the Workman in stone, who has for the most part to deal with masses of all forms and of all sizes.

Setting Stones.-All beds and joints should be truly worked and perfectly level. If the surface be convex it will give rise to wide unsightly joints; if concave the weight thrown on the stone will rest on the edges and probably cause them to “ flush ” or break off and disfigure the work. Large stones are placed in position with the aid of hoisting appliances and should be tried in position before being finally set. Great care should be taken to avoid fracturing or chipping the stone in the process of handling, as it is impossible to make good such damage. All stratified stones-and this includes by far the largest proportion of building stones-when set in a level position should be laid on their natural bed, 'i.e. with their laminae horizontal. The greatest stren th of a.stone is obtained when the laminae lie at right angles to the pressure placed upon it. In the case of arches these layers sho ld be parallel with the centre line of the voussoirs and at right angllies to the face of the arch. For cornices (except the corner-stones) and work of a like nature, the stone is set with the laminae on edge and perpendicular to the face of the work. With many stones it is easy to determine the bed by moistening with water, when the laminae will become apparent. Some stones, however, it is impossible to read in this way, and it is therefore advisable to have them marked in the quarry. A horizontal line in a quarry does not in all cases give the proper bed of the stone, for since the deposits were made ages ago natural upheavals have possibly occurred to alter the “ lie " of the material.

For the shafts of columns 'especially it is necessary to have the layers horizontally placed, anda stone should be selected from a quarry with a bed of the required depth. An example of the omission of this precaution is visible in the arcading of the Royal Courts of justice, London, where the small shafts of the front arcade in red sandstone have been turned with the laminae in a vertical positionkvéith the result that nearly every shaft is Haking away or is crac e, .

Use of M ortar.-See BRICKWORK. Of whatever quality the stone may be of which a wall is built, it should consist as much of stone and as little of mortar as possible. Only fine mortar is admissible if we are to obtain as thin joints as possible. The joints should be well raked out and pointed in Portland cement mortar. This applies only to some sandstones, as marbles and many limestones are stained by the use of Portland, cement. For these a special cement must be Employed, composed of plaster of Paris, lime, and marble or stoneust.

Bonding.-Bond (see BRICKWORK) is of not less importance in stone walling than in brickwork. In ashlar-work the work is bonded uniformly, the joints being kept perpendicularly one over the other; but in rubble-work, instead of making the joints recur one over the other in alternate courses they should be carefully made to lock, so as to give the strength of two or three courses or layers between a joint in one course and the joint that next occurs vertically above it in another course. In the through or transverse bonding of a wall a good proportion of header stones running about two-thirds of the distance through the width of the wall should be provided to bind the whole structure together. The use of through stones, i.e. stones running through the whole thickness of the wall from front to back, is not to be recommended. Such stones are liable to fracture and convey damp to the internal face.

Slip Joints.-As with brickwork so in masonry great care must be exercised to prevent the different parts of a building settling unequally. When two portions of a building differing considerably in height come together, it is usual to employ a slip or housed joint instead of bonding the walls into each other. This arrangement allows the heavier work to settle to a greater extent than the low portion without causing any defect in the stones.

Footings.-The footings of stone walls should consist of large stones of even thickness proportionate to their length; if' possible they should be the full breadth in one piece. Each course should be well bedded and levelled.

Walling.-There are broadly speaking two classes of stone walling: rubble and ashlar. Rubble walls are built of stones more or less irregular in shape and size and coarsely jointed. Ashlar walls are constructed of carefully worked blocks of regular dimensions and set with fine joints.