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The toothed axe has its edges divided into teeth, fine or coarse according to the work to be done. It is used to reduce the face of limestones and sandstones to a condition ready for the chisel. The bush hammer has a heavy square-shaped double-faced head, upon which are cut projecting pyramidal points. It is used to form a surface full of little holes, and with it the face of sand and limestones may be brought to a somewhat ornamental finish. The patent hammer is used on granite and other hard rocks, which have been first dressed to a medium surface with the point. The fineness of the result is determined by the number of blades in the hammer, and the work is said to be “ six, ” “ eight " or “ ten-cut " work according to the number of blades inserted or bolted in the hammer head. The crandall has an iron handle slotted at one end with a hole %tin. wide and 3 in. long. In this slot are fixed by a key ten or eleven double-headed points of § in. square steel about 9 in. long. It is used for finishing sandstone and soft stones after the surface has been levelled down with the axe or chisel. It gives a fine pebbly sparkling appearance.

There are several methods of finishing stone which involve a great deal of labour and are therefore expensive to work, but which result in imparting a very stiff and unnatural appearance to the masonry. Vermiculated Work.-This is formed by carving a number of curling worm-like lines over the face of the block, sinking in between the worms to a depth of a fourth of an inch. The surface of the strings is »Yo(rill<ed smooth, and the sinkings are pock-marked with a pointed too g. 7 t

Furro-wed Work.-In this face the stone is cut with a chisel into a number of small parallel grooves or furrows (fig. 7). Reticulated Face is a finish somewhat similar to vermiculated work, but the divisions are more nearly squares. F/.ue Joints of Ashlar.-The face joints of ashlar stonework are Dowels are used for connecting stones where the use of cramps would be impracti§ able, as in the joints of windoilz mullions, the shafts o sma column~, and in sim' r fi .,8 nd 20 Dowels' Dowels for bed band side joihtiis xiii;/' be Lied? 'lilhey aije of slate, metal, or sometimes of hard wood. t§ .';§ ;§ .zf;:.“;§§ a1°e'@ im- The i°s“= may as to fit into a, groove

"°'gIes° in the adjoining stone,

or grooves may be cut in both the

stones and an independent joggle

of slatie, jéebbiles, orl Portland cf:- ment tte, the jogg e being real y or a kind of dowel. The pebble °“"')“ "'°'k Bai Joggk r~



s. YQ

J fini Slc.dE

joggle joint is formed with the aid of pebbles as small dowels fitted

into mortises in the jointing faces of two stones and set with Portland cement; but joggles of slate

have generally taken the place of

pebbles. Portland cement joggles

are formed by pouring cement

grout into a vertical or oblique

mortise formed by cutting a groove

in each of the joining surfaces of the stones. What is known as a heand-she joggle, worked on the edges of the stones themselves, is shown in fig. 13.

Plugs or dowels of lead are formed by pouring molten lead through



Fig. 12.


often sunk or rebated to form what are termed rusticated joints; / sometimes the angles of each block are moulded or chambered to give relief to the surface or to show a massive effect (Hg. 7). Joints in Sto1zework.~The joints between one block of stone and /> another are formed in many ways by cramps, dowels and joggles //1,31 of various descriptions. ., /fj;;f'/' ' I H hs

tgfxit. '§ <sg$

  1<1G. 13.
  • . . .

/ f W a channel into dovetailed mortises in each stone (figs. 14 and 15).

  gf' X When cold the metal is caulked to compress it tightly into the


lonfpifudunal %%

sec on 1lr:>.

3213? of mcliil ,

FIG. Io. A Q

~ ' jx,

The stones of copings, cornices and works of a similar nature, are, ' '/”'?%'/9 § )§ often tied together with metal cramps to check any tendency for the l K/ ' ~ cram S stones to separate under the force of the wind (figs: 10 f j %» P ' and II). Cramps are made of iron (plain or galvanized), f| I 5% copper or gun-metal, of varying sections and lengths to suit the work. Pug: } I-A typical cramp would be about 9 in. long, I or 1% in. wide, and from | J § >£j2§ lé c;fgliro. #fi 7 lead

FIG. 14.

The saddle joint is used for cornices, and is formed when a portion

  of the stone next the joint is left raised so as to guide rain-water

? ' ', away from the joint (fig. 8). V y Two forms of, rebated joints for - ., % ' stone copings and roofs are comi°X'f.§

mon. In one form (shown in fig. 7)

=: ' the stones forming the coping are thicker at their lower and rebated

Al edge than at the top plain edge, tt. .... a h a eve sur ace an the 'tone i L, ..; . '-Mi P SWL °'°"“P tgrffi til tame that itttttt tittottgittttt FIG IL and worked to a rebate on top and bottom edges. In laying stone roofs I-md Joggw Q to 72 in. thick, and turned down about 1% in. at each end. A dovetailed mortise is formed at a suitable point in each of the stones to be joined and connected by a chase. The cramp is placed in this channel with its turned-down ends in the mortises, and it is then fixed with molten lead, sulphur and sand, or Portland cement. Lead shrinks on cooling, and if used at all should be well caulked when cold. Double dovetailed slate cramps bedded in Portland cement are occasionally used (fig. 11).

the joints are usually lapped over with an upper slab of stone.

Joints in Spires.-Four forms of jointing for the battering stonework of spires are shown in fig. 16. A is a plain horizontal joint. B is a similar joint formed at right angles to the face of the work. This is the most economical form of joint, the stone being cut with its sides square with each other; but if the mortar in the joint decay moisture is allowed to penetrate. With these FIG. 15.