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MASSACHUSETTS

Governors of Massachusetts

(Under the First Charter-chosen annually). John Endecott 1 ......... 1629-1630 John Winthrop ......... 1630-1634

Thomas Dudley 1634-1635

John Haynes 1635-1636

Henry Vane 1636-1637

John Winthrop .~ 1637-1640

Thomas Dudley 1640-1641

Richard Bellingham 1641-1642

John Winthrop 1642-1644

John Endecott 1644-1645

Thomas Dudley . 1645-1646

John Winthrop 1646-1649

John Endecott 1649-1650

Thomas Dudley 1650-1651

John Endecott 1651-1654

Richard Bellingham 1654-1655

John Endecott 1655-1665

Richard Bellingham . . 1665-1672

John Leverett (acting, 1672-1673) 1672-1679 Simon Bradstreet 1679-1686

Sir Edmund Andros . . .. 1686-1689 Simon Bradstreet . .. 1689-1692

Under Second Charter-appointed by the Crown.” Sir William Phips .... . 1692-1694 William Stoughton (acting) 1694-1699 Richard Coote, earl of Bellomont 1699-1700 William Stoughton (acting) 1700-1701 Joseph Dudley .. 1702-1715

William Tailer (acting) 1715-1716 Samuel Shute 1716-1722

William Dummer (acting) 1722-1728 William Burnet 1728-1729

William Dummer (acting) ' 1729-1730 William Tailer (acting) 1730

jonathan Belcher 1730-1741

William Shirley 1741-1749

Spencer Phips (acting) 1749-1753

William Shirley 1753-1756

Spencer Phips (acting) 1756-1757

Thomas Pownal 1757-1760

Thomas Hutchinson (acting) 1760

Sir Francis Bernard, Bart. 1760-'1769 Thomas Hutchinson (acting) 1769-1771 Thomas Hutchinson 1771-1774

Thomas Gage 3 . .. 1774-1775

Under the Constitution.

John Hancock . .. 1780-1785

James Bowdoin . 1785-1787

John Hancock 1787-1793

Samuel Adams (acting) 1793-1794 Samuel Adams 1794-1797

Increase Sumner Federalist 1797-1799 Moses Gill (lieut.-governor; acting) -, , 1799-1800 Caleb Strong .., , 1800-1807

jas Sullivan Democratic-Republican 1807-1808 Levi Lincoln (acting) , , 1808-1809 Christopher Gore Federalist 1809-1810 Elbridge Gerry Democratic-Republican 1810-1812 Caleb Strong Federalist 1812-1816 John Brooks , , 1816-1823

William Eustis Democratic-Republican 1823-1825 Levi Lincoln , , 1825-1834

John Davis Whig 1834-1835

Edward Everett H 1836-1840

Marcus Morton Democrat 1840-1841

John Davis Whig 1841-1843

Marcus Morton Democrat 1843-1 844 George N. Briggs Whig 1844-1851

George S. Boutwell Free-Soil Democrat 1851-1853 John H. Clitford Whig 1853-1854

Emory Washburn, , 1854-1855

Henry j. Gardner Know-Nothing 1855-1858 Nathaniel P. Banks Republican 1858-1861 1 Endecott, by commission dated the 30th of April 1629, was John A. Andrew Republican 1861—1866 Alexander H. Bullock, , 1866-1869

William Clafiin , , 1869-1872

William B. Washburn, , 1872-1874

Thomas Talbot (acti11g), , 1874-1875 William Gaston Democrat 1875-1876 Alexander H. Rice Republican 1876-1879 Thomas Talbot , , 1879-1880

John Davis Long, , 1880-1883

Benjamin F. Butler Democrat 1883-1884 George D. Robinson Republican 1884-1887 Oliver Ames , , 1887-1890

John Q. A. Brackett, , 1890-1891

William E. Russell Democrat 1891-1894 Frederic T. Greenhalge Republican 1894-1896 Roger Wolcott , , 1896-1897

Roger Wolcott , , 1897-1900

W. Murray Crane, , 1900-1903

John L. Bates , , 1903-1905

William L Douglas Democrat 1905-1906 Curtis L Guild Republican 1906-1909 Eben S. Draper , , 1909-1911

Eugene N. Foss Democrat 1911

BIBLlOGRAPHY.*FOl' Topography: W. M. Davis, Physical Geomade “ governor of London's plantation in the Massachusetts Bay." Matthew Cradock, first governor of the Company, from the 4th of March 1629 to the 20th of October 1629, was succeeded on the latter date by John Vi/inthrop, who, on reaching Salem on the 12th of June 1630 with the charter, superseded Endecott 2 During three periods, 1701-1702, in February 1715, and from April to August 1757 the affairs of the colony were administered by the Executive Council.

General Gage was military governor, Hutchinson remaining nominally civil governor.

graphy of Southern New England (New York, 1895), and for the western counties, R. D. Mallary, Lenox and the Berkshire Highlands (New York-London, 1902); also Inland Massachusetts, Illustrated. (Springfield, 1890); C. F. Warner, Picturesque Berkshire (also Franklin, Hampden, Hampshire, Northampton, 1890-1893); U. S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 116, H. Gannett, “Geographic Dictionary of Massachusetts.” On Minerals: U S Census, 1900, and U S Geological Survey, annual volume on Mineral Resources. On Agriculture: U S Census and reports of Mass. Census (alternating with Federal census), and reports and bulletins of the Board of Agriculture (1852) and the Agricultural College (1867). and Experiment Station (1883) at Amherst. On Manufactures, &c.: See Reports of state and Federal censuses; also Annual Reports (1869) of the state Bureau of Statistics of Labor, which contain a wealth of valuable material'(e g. 1903, “ Race in Industry "; 1902, “Sex in lndustry ”; 1885, “Wages and Prices, 1752-1863, " &c.); W. R. Bagnall, The Textile Industries of the United States (vol. i., 1639-1810, Cambridge, 1893); j. L. Hayes. “American Textile Machinery: its Early History, &c." (Cambridge, 1870; Bulletin of National Association of Wool Manufacturers), and literature therein referred to. On Commerce and Communications: U S Census, 1902 (vol 0n “ Electric Railways ”); U S Interstate Commerce Commission, annual Statistics of Railways; publications of the State Board of Trade; W. Hill on “ First Stages of the TariFf Policy of the United States" in American Economic Association Publications, vol. viii., no. 6 (1893). On Population: Census reports, state and Federal, publications of Bureau of Statistics of Labor, Board of Health (1869-; the Annual Report of 1896 contains an exhaustive analysis of vital statistics, 1856-1895); Board of Charity (1878-), &c. 0n Administration: G. H. Haynes, Representation and Sujrage in Massachusetts, 1620-1691, in Johns Hopkins University, Studies in History, xii.; Manual for the General Court (Annual); R. H. Whitten, Public Administration in Massachusetts, in Columbia University, Studies in History, vol. viii. (1898); H. R. Spencer, Constitutional Conflict in Provincial Massachusetts (Columbus, O., 1905); and the annual Public Documents of Massachusetts, embracing the reports of all state officers and institutions. On Taxation: See especially the official “ Report of the Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Expediency of Revising and Amending the Laws Relating to Taxation” (1897), and vol. Xi. of the Report of the United States Industrial Commission (Wash., 1901); H. G. Friedman, The Taxation of Corporations in Massachusetts (New York, 1907); and C. j. Bullock, Historical Sketch of the Finances and Financial Policy of Massachusetts (1907). On Education: See Annual Reports of the United States Commissioner of Education; G. G. Bush, History of Higher Education in Massachusetts (Washington, U.S. Bureau of Education, 1891); article on HARVARD UNIVER-SITY. On History: Elaborate bibliography is given in j. Vi/insor's Narrative and Critical History of America and in his Memorial History of Boston. The colonial historical classics are William Bradford, History of Plirnoth Plantation (pub. by the commonwealth, 1898; also edited by Charles Deane, in Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 1856, series 4, vol. iii.); j. Ninth1'op, History of New England 1630-1649, edited by j. Savage (Boston, 2 vols. 1825-1826, new ed., 1853); S. E. Sewall, Diary, 1674-1729 (3 vols., Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, series 5, vols. v.-vii., 1878-1882), a fascinating and microscopic picture of colonial life; T. Hutchinson, History of Massachusetts (3 vols., respectively Boston, 1764, 1767, London, 1828); also the very valuable Hutchinson Papers (2 vols., Prince Society, Boston, 1865). For the period 1662-1666, when Massachusetts was investigated by royal commissioners, see Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, series 2, vol. viii., 1819; on the Andros period, 1689-1691, see the Andros Tracts (3 vols., Prince Society Publications. v.-vii., Boston, 1868-1874), ed. by j. H. Whitmore. The one-time-