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a man of narrow sympathies. On the contrary, he was democratic in his thought, and outspoken in his rebuke of whatever seemed to him antagonistic to the highest freedom. Thus, without taking a very active part in political life, he was recognized as one of the leaders of independent political thought. He found expression in so many ways, and was apparently so inexhaustible in his resources, that his very versatility and the ease with which he gave expression to his thought sometimes stood in the way of a recognition of his large, simple political ideality and the singleness of his moral sight.

WRITINGS.-The Works of James Russell Lowell, in ten volumes (Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1890); edition de luxe, 61 vols. (1904); Latest Literary Essays and Addresses (1891); The Old English Dramatists (1892); Conversations on some of the Old Poets (Philadelphia, David M'Kay; reprint of the volume published in 1843 and subsequently abandoned by its author, 1893); The Power o{ Sound: a Rhymed Lecture (New York, privately réinlnlteclé; Lectures on English Poets (Cleveland, The Rowfant

MEMOIRS.*L8ll6fS of James Russell Lowell, edited by Charles Eliot Norton, in two volumes (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1899); Life of James Russell Lowell (2 vols.), by Horace E. Scudder (Houghton, Mifllin & Co., 1901); James Russell Lowell and his Friends (Boston, 1899), by Edward Everett Hale. (H. E. S.*)

LOWELL, JOHN (1743-1802), American jurist, was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, on the 17th of June 1743, and was a son of the Reverend John Lowell, the first pastor of Newburyport, and a descendant of Perceval Lowle or Lowell (1 S7 1-166 5), who emigrated from Somersetshire to Massachusetts Bay in 1639 and was the founder of the family in New England. John Lowell graduated at Harvard in 1760, was admitted to the bar in 1763, represented Newburyport (1776) and Boston (1778) in the Massachusetts Assembly, was a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779-1780 and, as a member of the committee appointed to draft a constitution, secured the insertion of the clause, “ all men are born free and equal, ” which was interpreted by the supreme court of the state in 1783 as abolishing slavery in the state. In 1781-1783 he was a member of the Continental Congress, which in 1782 made him a judge of the court of appeals for admiralty cases; in 1784 he was one of the commissioners from Massachusetts to settle the boundary line between Massachusetts and New York; in 1789-1801 he was a judge of the U.S. District Court of Massachusetts; and from 1801 until his death in Roxbury on the 6th of May 1802 he was a justice of the U.S. Circuit Court for the First Circuit (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Rhode Island).

His son, ]o11N LOWELL (1769-1840), graduated at Harvard in 1786, was admitted to the bar in 1789 (like his father, before he was twenty years old), and retired from active practice in 1803. He opposed French influence and the policies of the Democratic party, writing many spirited pamphlets (some signed “The Boston Rebel, ” some “ The Roxbury Farmer ”), including: The Antigallican (1797), Remarks on the Hon. J. Q. Adams's Review of Mr Ames's Works (1809), New England Patriot, being a Candid Comparison of the Principles and Conduct of the Washington and J ejerson Administrations (ISIC), Appeals to the People on the Causes and Consequences of War with Great Britain (181 1) and Mr 'Madison's War (181 2). These pamphlets contain an extreme statement of the anti-war party and defend impressment as a right of long standing. After the war Lowell abandoned politics, and won for himself the title of “ the Columella of New England ” by his interest in agriculture-he was for many years president of the Massachusetts Agricultural Society. He was a benefactor of the Boston Athenaeum and the Massachusetts General Hospital.

Another son of the first John Lo well, FRANCIS CABOT Lowatt (1775-1817), the founder in the United States of cotton manufacturing, was born in Newburyport on the 7th of April 1775, graduated at Harvard in 1793, became a merchant in Boston, and, during the war of 1812, with his cousin (who was also his brother-in-law), Patrick Tracy Jackson, made use of the knowledge of cotton-spinning gained by Lowell in England (whither he had gone for his health in 1810) and devised a power loom. Experiments were successfully carried on at Waltham in 1814. Lowell worked hard to secure a protective tariff on cotton goods. The city of Lowell, Massachusetts, was named in his honour. He died in Boston on the 10th of August 1817.

CHARLES LOWELL. (1782*186I), brother of the last named, was born in Boston, graduated at Harvard in 1800, studied law and then theology, and after two years in Edinburgh and one year on the Continent was from 1806 until his death pastor of the West Congregational (Unitarian) Church of Boston, a charge in which Cyrus A. Bartol was associated with him after 1837. Charles Lowell had a rare sweetness and charm, which reappeared in his youngest son, James Russell Lowell (q.v.). Francis Cabot Lowell's son, JOHN LOWELL (1799-1836), was born in Boston, travelled in India and the East Indies on business in 1816 and 1817, in 1832 set out on a trip around the world, and on the 4th of March 1836 died in Bombay. By a will-made, said Edward Everett, “on the top of a palace of the Pharaohs, ” he left $237,000 to establish what is now known as the Lowell Institute (q.v.).

See the first lecture delivered before the Institute, Edward Everett's A Memoir of Mr John Lowell, Jr. (Boston, 1840). A grandson of Francis Cabot Lowell, EDWARD JACKSON LOWELL (1845-1894), graduated at Harvard in 1867, was admitted to the Suffolk county (Mass.) bar in 1872, and practised law for a few years. He wrote The H essians and the Other German Auxiliaries of Great Britain in the Revolutionary War (1884), The Eve of the French Revolution (1892) and the chapter, “ The United States of America 1775-1782: their Political Relations with Europe, ” in vol. vii. (1888) of Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America.

LOWELL, a city and one of the county-seats (Cambridge being the other) of Middlesex county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., situated in the N.E. part of the county at the confluence of the Concord and Merrimack rivers, about 25 m. N.W. of Boston. Pop. (1890) 77,696; (1900) 94,969, of whom 40,974 were foreign born (14,674 being French Canadian, 12,147 Irish, 4485 English Canadian, 4446 English, 1203 Greek, 1099 Scotch); (1910 census), 106,294. Lowell is served by the Boston & Maine and the New York, New Haven & Hartford railways, and by interurban electric lines. The area of Lowell is 14-1 sq. m., much the larger part of which is S. of the Merrimack. The city is irregularly laid out. Its centre is Monument Square, in Merrimack Street, where are a granite monument to the first Northerners killed in the Civil War, Luther C. Ladd and A. O. Whitney (both of Lowell), whose regiment was mobbed in Baltimore on the 19th of April 1861 while marching to Washington; and a bronze figure of Victory (after one by Rauch in the Valhalla at Ratisbon), commemorating the Northern triumph in the Civil War. The Lowell textile school, opened in 1897, offers courses in cotton manufacturing, wool manufacturing, designing, chemistry and dyeing, and textile engineering; evening drawing schools and manual training in the public schools have contributed to the high degree of technical perfection in the factories. The power gained from the Pawtucket Falls in the Merrimack river has long been found insufficient for these. A network of canals supplies from 14,000 to 24,000 h.p.; and a small amount is also furnished by the Concord river, but about 26,000 h.p. is supplied by steam. In factory output ($46,879,212 in 1905; $41,202,984 in 1900) Lowell ranked fifth in value in 1905 and fourth in 1900 among the cities of Massachusetts; more than three-tenths of the total population are factory wage-earners, and nearly 19% of the population are in the cotton mills. Formerly Lowell was called the “ Spindle City " and the “ Manchester of America, ” but it was long ago surpassed in the manufacture of textiles by Fall River and New Bedford: in 1905 the value of the cotton product of Lowell, $19,340,925, was less than 60% of the value of cotton goods made at Fall River. Woollen goods made in Lowell in 1905 were valued at $2,579,365 hosiery and knitted goods, at $3,816,964; worsted goods, at $I, Q78,552. Carpets and textile machinery are allied manufactures of importance. There are other factories for machinery, patent medicines, boots and shoes,