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MAZZONI, GIACOMO—MEADE, G. G.

eulogy on the departed patriot as a model of disinterestedness and self-denial, and one who had dedicated his whole life ungrudgingly to the cause of his country's freedom. A public funeral took place at Pisa on the 14th of March, and the remains were afterwards conveyed to Genoa. (J. S. BL.)

The published writings of Mazzini, mostly occasional, are very voluminous. An edition was begun by himself and c0ntinued by A. Saffi, Scritti editi e inediti di Giuseppe Mazzini, in 18 vols. (Milan and Rome, 1861-1891); many of the most important are found in the partially autobiographical Life and Writings of Joseph Mazzini (1864-1 870) and the two most systematic- Thoughts upon Dernocracy in Europe, a remarkable series of criticisms on Benthamxsm, St Simonianism, Fourierism, and other economic and socialistic schools of the day, and the treatise On the Duties of Man, an admirable primer of ethics, dedicated to the Italian working class-will be found in Joseph Mazzini: a Memoir, by Mrs E. A. Venturi (London, 1875). Mazzini's “ first great sacrifice, ” he tells us, was “ the renunciation of the career of literature for the more direct path of political action, " and as late as 1861 we find him still recurring to the long-cherished hope of being able to leave the stormy arena of politics and consecrate the last years of his life to the dream of his youth. He had specially contemplated three considerable literary undertakings-a volume of Thoughts on Religion, a popular History of Italy, to enable the working classes to apprehend what he conceived to be the “ mission ” of Italy in God's providential ordering of the world, and a comprehensive collection of translations of ancient and modern classics into Italian. None of these was actually achieved. No one, however, can read even the briefest and most occasional writing of Mazzini without gaining some impression of the simple grandeur of the man, the lofty elevation of his moral tone, his unwavering faith in the living God, who is ever revealing Himself in the progressive development of humanity. His last public utterance is to be found in a highly characteristic article on Renan's Réforme Illorale et Intellectuelle, finished on the 3rd of March 1872, and published in the Fortnightly Review for February 1874. Of the 40,000 letters of Mazzini only a small part have been published. In 1887 two hundred unpublished letters were printed at Turin (Duecento lettere inedite di Giuseppe Mazzini), in 1895 the Lettres intimes were published in Paris, and in 1905 Francesco Rosso published, Lettre inedite di Giuseppe Mazzini (Turin, 1905). A popular edition of Mazzini's writings has been undertaken by order of the Italian government.

For Mazzini's biography see Jessie White Mario, Della vita di Giuseppe Mazzini (Milan, 1886), a useful if somewhat too enthusiastic work; Bolton King, Mazzini (London, 1903); Count von Schack, Joseph Mazzini und die italienische Einheit (Stuttgart, 1891). A. Luzio's Giuseppe Mazzini (Milan, 1905) contains a great deal of valuable information, bibliographical and other, and Dora Melegari in La giovine Italia e Giuseppe Mazzini (Milan, 1906) publishes the correspondence between Mazzini and Luigi A. Melegari during the early days of “ Young Italy.” For the literary side of Mazzini's life see Peretti, Gli scritti letterarii di Giuseppe Mazzini (Turin, 1904). (L. V.*)


MAZZONI, GIACOMO (1548-1598), Italian philosopher, was born at Cescna and died at Ferrara. A member of a noble family and highly educated, he was one of the rnost eminent savants of the period. He occupied chairs in the universities of Pisa and Rome, was one of the founders of the Della Crusca Academy, and had the distinction, it is said, of thrice vanquishing the Admirable Crichton in dialectic. His chief work in philosophy was an attempt to reconcile Plato and Aristotle, and in this spirit he published in 1597 a treatise In universal Platonis et Aristotelis philosophiarn praecludia. He wrote also De triplici hominum vita, wherein he outlined a theory of the infinite perfection and development of nature. Apart from philosophy, he was prominent in literature as the champion of Dante, and produced two works in the poet's defence: Discorso composto in difcsa della cornedia di Dante (1572), and Della difesa della comedia di Dante (1587, reprinted 1688). He was an authority on ancient languages and philology, and gave a great impetus to the scientific study of the Italian language.


MAZZONI, GUIDO (1859-), Italian poet, was born at Florence, and educated at Pisa and Bologna. In 1887 he became professor of Italian at Padua, and in 1894 at Florence. He was much influenced by Carducci, and became prominent both as a prolitic and well-read critic and as a poet of individual distinction. His chief volumes of verse are Versi (1880), N uove poesie (1886), Poesie (1891), Voci della vita (1893).


MEAD, LARKIN GOLDSMITH (1835-), American sculptor, was born at Chesterfield, New Hampshire, on the 3rd of January 183 5. He was a pupil (1853-1855) of Henry Kirke Brown. During the early part of the Civil War he was at the front for six months, with the army of the Potomac, as an artist for Harper's Weekly; and in 1862-1865 he was in Italy, being for part of the time attached to the United States consulate at Venice, while William D. Howells, his brother-in-law, was consul. He returned to America in 1865, but subsequently went back to Italy and lived at Florence. His first important work was a statue of Ethan Allen, now at the State House, Montpelier, Vermont. His principal works are: the monument to President Lincoln, Springfield, Illinois; “ Ethan Allen ” (1876), National Hall of Statuary, Capitol, Washington; an heroic marble statue, “The Father of Waters, ” New Orleans; and “ Triumph of Ceres, ” made for the Columbian Exposition, Chicago.

His brother, WILLIAM RUTHERFORD MEAD (1846-), graduated at Amherst College in 1867, and studied architecture in New York under Russell Sturgis, and also abroad. In 1879 he and ]. F. McKim, with whom he had been in partnership for two years as architects, were joined by Stanford White, and formed the well-known firm of McKim, Mead & White.


MEAD, RICHARD (1673–1754), English physician, eleventh child of Matthew Mead (1630–1699), Independent divine, was born on the 11th of August 1673 at Stepney, London. He studied at Utrecht for three years under J. G. Graevius; having decided to follow the medical profession, he then went to Leiden and attended the lectures of Paul Hermann and Archibald Pitcairne. In 1695 he graduated in philosophy and physic at Padua, and in 1696 he returned to London, entering at once on a successful practice. His Mechanical Account of Poisons appeared in 1702, and in 1703 he was admitted to the Royal Society, to whose Transactions he contributed in that year a paper on the parasitic nature of scabies. In the same year he was elected physician to St Thomas's Hospital, and appointed to read anatomical lectures at the Surgeons' Hall. On the death of John Radcliffe in 1714 Mead became the recognized head of his profession; he attended Queen Anne on her deathbed, and in 1727 was appointed physician to George II., having previously served him in that capacity when he was prince of Wales. He died in London on the 16th of February 1754.

Besides the Mechanical Account of Poisons (and ed., 1708), Mead published a treatise De imperio solis et lunae in corpora humana et morbis inde oriundis (1704), A Short Discourse concerning Pestilential Contagion, and the Method to be used to prevent it (1720); De variolis et morbillis dissertatio (1747), Medica sacra, sive de morbis insignioribus qui in bibliis memorantur commentarius (1748), On the Scurvy (1749), and Monita et praecepta medica (1751). A Life of Mead by Dr Matthew Maty appeared in 1755.


MEAD. (1) A word now only used more or less poetically for the cornmoner form “ meadow, ” properly land laid down for grass and cut for hay, but often extended in meaning to include pasture-land. “ Meadow ” represents the oblique case, maédwe, of O. Eng. rnaéd, which comes from the root seen in “ mow ”; the word, therefore, means “ mowed land.” Cognate words appear in other Teutonic languages, a familiar instance being Ger. matt, seen in place-names such as Zermatt, Andermatt, &c. (See GRASS.) (2) The name of a drink made by the fermentation of honey mixed with water. Alcoholic drinks made from honey were common in ancient times, and during the middle ages throughout Europe. The Greeks and Romans knew of such under the names of éépéi/.eh and hydrornel; rnulsurn was a form of mead with the addition of wine. The word is common to Teutonic languages (cf. Du. mede, Ger. Met or Meth), andiis cognate with Gr. }.Lé0U, WII1€, and Sansk. rncidhu, sweet drink. “ Metheglin, ” another word for mead, properly a medicated or spiced form of the drink, is an adaptation of the Welsh meddyglyn, which is derived from rneddyg, healing (Lat. rnedicus) and llyn, liquor. It therefore means “ spiced or medicated drink, ” and is not etymologically connected with “ mead.”


MEADE, GEORGE GORDON (1815-1872), American soldier, was born of American parentage at Cadiz, Spain, on the 31st of December 1815. On graduation at the United States Military Academy in 183 5, he served in Florida with the 3rd Artillery against the Seminoles. Resigning from the army in 1836, he