promotes legibility, and the saving of time is very considerable. Words written thus should be closely connected in sense and awkward V$
joinings avoided. Such phrases are I am, I have, f/ you are, ~ you may, Lit would, Lift would not, Z we are, / we have, </, we have not, we have never been, /wig my dear friends, as far as possible, for the most part, and many thousands of others. For the sake of obtaining a good phraseogram for a common phrase, it is often advisable to omit some part of the consonant outline. Thus the phrase you must recollect that may very well be written, ,, .°/°i((you must recollect that). Lists of recommended phraseograms are given in the Phonographie Phrase Book, the Legal Phrase Book and the Railway Phrase Book.
Specimens of Phonograph y.
k. %~f:;~-;~»74, a, -~, § oggg//';~f.d°a, ; ~'s
-rv/ /=»fs.s2.rc '§ -, ,
/' | at Cc, "° ,2(b,
~°, »=.s, lse °~s=, >, .z=-'/>
f~»7.e, .. L. <f%»°f,2./: Z'Qfg
V 'i|; ng./ ' NYT J
- f~<(, ,°1~~=/ I '=/f.¥»'»-1-/'l
KEY.-If all the feelings of a patriot glow in our bosoms on a perusal of those eloquent speeches which are delivered in the senate, or in those public assemblies where the people are frequently convened to exercise the birthright of Britons—we owe it to shorthand. If new fervour be added to our devotion, and an additional stimulus be imparted to our exertions as Christians, by the eloquent appeals and encouraging statements made at the anniversaries of our various religious societies-we owe it to shorthand. If we have an opportunity in interesting judicial cases, of examining the evidence, and learning the proceedings with as much certainty, and nearly as much minuteness, as if we had been present on the occasion—we owe it to shorthand.
~f~'=i, ~»~f»~°»~<»°»/1, .f1../.1..
/°<//t/>'-', '?. ~~r/-/f, 'f»
§ ]°s/'1». 's:¢, .~»>~~-»"“"@>»'f1f°-l~»»'f»'-1—.Li'-. »”fs'4.L-"7“.., ,L"/-°>
-/')', "?°J, &i.
KEY (the phraseograms being indicated by hyphens).-CHAR-ACTERISTICS OF THE AGE.-The peculiar and distinguishing characteristics of the present-age are-in every respect remarkable. Unquestionably an extraordinary and universal-change has commenced in-the internal as-well-as-the external-world-in-themindof-man as-well-as-in-the habits of society, the one indeed being-the necessary-consequence of the other. A rational consideration of the circumstances in-which-mankind are at-present placed mustshow-ns that influences of the most-important and wonderful character have-been and are operating in-such-a-manner-as-to bring-about if-not-a reformation, a thorough revolution in-the organization of society. Never in-the-history-of-the-world have benevolent and philanthropic institutions for-the relief of domestic and public affliction; societies for-the promotion of manufacturing, commercial and agricultural interests; associations for-the instruction of the masses, the advancement of literature and science. the development of-true political-principles, for-the extension in-short of-every description of knowledge and-the-bringing-about of-every kind-of reform, -been-so numerous, so efficient and so indefatigable in-their operation as at-the-present-day. An enumeration made in 1894 showed that Q5(%, of British newspaper reporters used Pitman's system; but there are still numerous varieties preferred by individuals. Of the systems published since the invention of phonograph, ,, S, oU, the principal are A. M. Bell's Stenophonography (Edinburgh, 1852), Professor ]. D. Everett's (London, 1877), Pocknell's Legible Shorthand (London, 1881), and ]. M. Sloan's adaptation (the Sloan-Duployan) of the French system of Duployé (1882). More recent essays in English shorthand are almost' entirely in the direction of script characters with connected vowels, as contrasted with the geometric forms and disjoined vowels of Pitman's phonograph. The majority are founded on the French system of the brothers Duployé, but Cursive Shorthand (Cambridge, 1889), by Prof. H. L. Callendar, and Current Shorthand (Oxford, 1892), by Dr Henry Sweet, may be noted as original methods, the first having a phonetic, and the second both an orthographic and a phonetic, basis. The distinctive features in recent shorthand history have been the widely-extended employment of the art, the increased attention paid to instruction and the growth of stenographic societies. Throughout the civilized world the systems employed are those of the leading authors of the 19th century; earlier systems have now a numerically small number of practitioners. Shorthand has become an almost indispensable qualification for the amanuensis, and practical stenographic ability is a necessary equipment of 'the typewriter operator. In professional and commercial offices, and more recently in the services, dictation to shorthand writers has become general. Shorthand has been included among examination subjects for the army, navy, civil service and medicine in the United Kingdom, and to a certain extent in other countries. Its inclusion in the Technical Instruction Act.of 1889 was the first recognition of shorthand by the British parliament, and it was subsequently comprised in the codes of elementary day and evening continuation schools. It first became an examination subject for secondary schools in the Oxford Local Examination in 1888, but the Society of Arts has examined Recent
A students of polytechnics, &c., in shorthand since 1876. Examinations in Connexion with the phonographic system of Isaac Pitman date from 1845.
In 1887 the tercentenary of the origination of modern shorthand by Timothy Bright and the jubilee of Isaac Pitman's phonograph were celebrated by the holding of the first International Shorthand Congress in London. Subsequent congresses were held at Paris'(1889), Munich (1890), when a statue of Gabelsberger was unveiled; Berlin (1891), Chicago (1893), Stockholm (1897), Paris (1900), &c. These gatherings have promoted the improved organization of stenographic practitioners in the respective countries. After the first congress, three national organizations were established in Great Britain by Pitman writers, which take the place of the Phonetic Society (established in 1843 and dissolved in 1895). In America the formation of national associations for reporters and teachers followed the fifth congress.
As regards speed in shorthand writing, it may be mentioned that at the exhibition at Olympia (London) in 1908, the “ Wor1d's Shorthand Championship ” was awarded for 220 words a minute for five minutes. But it has been claimed that a rate of 2 5o words a minute has been accomplished. It may be pointed out, however, that such a rate cannot be wanted for any practical purpose, since the fastest public speaker never speaks anything like 250 words a minute, even though for a demonstration such a thing could be done. The average rate of public speaking is from 120 to 1 50 words a minute.
I Foreign Shorthand Systems.
To complete the history of the subject, the following notes on systems introduced in various European countries may be useful. German.-C. A. Ramsay's Tacheographia (Frankfort, 1679, and several times afterwards until 1743) was an adaptation of T. Sheltr>n's
English system. Mosengeil (1797) first practically introduced short-