civil wars greatly interfered with the prosperity of the native population, who grouped themselves into two opposing political parties. Americans and Europeans began to discuss the question of annexation, recognizing the importance of the geographical position of the islands. In 1877 the American consul hoisted his country's flag, but the action was repudiated by his government, which, however, in 1878 obtained Pago Pago as a coaling station and made a trading treaty with the natives. In 1879 Germany obtained the harbour of Saluafata. Great Britain followed suit, but under a political arrangement between the powers no single power was to appropriate the islands. But in 1887 and 1888 civil war prevailed on the question of the succession to the native kingship, the Germans supporting Tamasese, and the British and American residents supporting Malietoa. After the latter had been deported by the Germans, the British and American support was transferred to his successor, Mataafa. In the course of the fighting which ensued some fifty German sailors and marines were killed or wounded by the adherents of Mataafa. A conference between the three powers was thereupon held at Berlin, and a treaty was executed by those powers and by Samoa, on the 14th of June 1889, by virtue of which the independence and autonomy of the islands were guaranteed, Malietoa was restored as king, and the three powers constituted themselves practically a protectorate over Samoa, and provided a chief justice and a president of the municipality of Apia, to be appointed by them, to aid in carrying out the provisions of the treaty. The government was administered under this treaty, but with considerable friction, until the end of 1898, when, upon the death of Malietoa, two rival candidates for the throne again appeared, and the chief justice selected by the three powers decided against the claims of Mataafa, and in favour of a boy, Malietoa Tanu, a relative of the deceased Malietoa. Civil war immediately ensued, in which several American and British officers and sailors were killed by the natives, the Germans upholding the claims of Mataafa, and the British and 'Americans supporting the rival candidate. The three powers thereupon sent a commission to Samoa to investigate and adjust the difficulties. The situation, however, was folmd to be so complicated and embarrassing that, early in 1900, the so-called Berlin treaty was abrogated, Great Britain withdrew her claims to any portion of the islands and received compensation from Germany by concessions in other parts of the world, and the United States withdrew from all the islands W. of Tutuila. In 1902 the king of Sweden, as arbitrator under a convention signed at Washington in 1899, decided that Great Britain and the United States were liable for injuries due to action taken by their representatives durin the military operations of 1899. See Robert Louis Stevenson, A Footnote to History (London, 1892), and Vailima Letters (London, 1895); G. Turner, Samoa a Hundred Years A go and Long Before (London, 1884); W. B. Churchward, My Consulate in Samoa (London, 1887) ig. B. Stair, Old Samoa (London, 1897); Mary S. Boyd, Our Stolen ummer (London, 1900); L. P. Churchill, Samoa *Uma (London, 1902); Journal des museums Godefroy (Hamburg, 1871-1874); G. Kurze, Samoa, das Land, die Leute und die Mission (Berlin, 1899); O. Ehlers, Samoa, die Perle der Szidsee (Berlin, 1900); F. Reinecke, Samoa (Berlin, 1901); A. Kramer, Die Samoa Inseln (Stuttgart, 1902 seq.); parliamentary papers, Correspondence res pectin the Ajfairs of Samoa (London, 1899, &c.), and 1902 (Samoa, Cd. 1083) for the arbitration of the king of Sweden.
SAMOS, one of the principal and most fertile of the islands in the Aegean Sea that closely adjoin the mainland of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by a strait of only about a mile in width. It is about 27 m. in length, by about 14 in its greatest breadth, and is occupied throughout the greater part of its extent by a range of mountains, of which the highest summit, near its western extremity, called Mount Kerkis, is 4725 ft. high. This range is in fact a continuation of that of Mount Mycale on the mainland, of which the promontory of Trogilium, immediately opposite to the city of Samos, formed the extreme point. Samos is tributary to Turkey in the sum of £2700 annually, but otherf wise is practically an independent principality, governed by a prince of Greek nationality nominated by the Porte. As chief of the executive power the prince is assisted by a senate of four members, chosen by him out of eight candidates nominated by the four districts of the island-Vathy, Chora, Marathocumbo and Carlovasi. The legislative power belongs to a chamber of 36 deputies, presided over by the metropolitan. The seat of the government is Vathy (6000). There is a telephone service. The island is remarkably fertile, and a great portion of it is covered with vineyards, the wine from the Vathy grapes enjoying ax specially high reputation. There are three ports: Vathy, Tegani and Carlovasi. The population in 1900 was about 54,8 30, not comprising 1 5,000 natives of Samos inhabiting the adjoining coasts. The predominant religion is the Orthodox Greek, the metropolitan district including Samos and Icaria. In 1900 there were 634 foreigners on the island (523 Hellenes, 13 Germans, 29 French, 28 Austrians and 24 of other nationalities). History.-Concerning the earliest history of Samos literary tradition is singularly defective. At the time of the great migrations it received an Ionian population which traced its origin to Epidaurus in Argolis. By the 7th century B.c. it had become one of the leading commercial centres of Greece. This early prosperity of the Samians seems largely due to the island's position near the end of the Maeander and Cayster trade-routes, which facilitated the importation of textiles from inner Asia Minor. But the Samians also developed an extensive oversea commerce. They helped to open up trade with the Black Sea and with Egypt, and were credited with having been the first Greeks to reach the Straits of Gibraltar. Their commerce brought them into close relations with Cyrene, and probably also with Corinth and Chalcis, but made them bitter rivals of their neighbours of Miletus. The feud between these two states broke out into open strife during the Lelantine War (7th century B.C.), with which we ma connect a Samian innovation in Greek naval warfare, the use ofy the trireme. The result of this conflict was to confirm the supremacy of the Milesians in eastern waters for the time being; but in the 6th century the insular position of Samos preserved it from those aggressions at the hands of Asiatic kings to which Miletus was henceforth exposed. About 535 B.C., when the existing oligarchy was overturned by the tyrant Polycrates (q.11.), Samos reached the height of its prosperity. Its navy not only protected it from invasion, but ruled supreme in Aegean waters. The city was beautified with public works, and its school of sculptors, metal-workers and engineers achieved high repute (see below). After Polycrates' death Samos suffered a severe blow when the Persians conquered and partly depopulated the island. It had regained much of its power when in 499 it joined the general revolt of the Ionians against Persia; but owing to its long-standing jealousy of Miletus it rendered indifferent service, and at the decisive battle of Lade (494) part of its contingent of sixty ships was guilty of downright treachery. In 479 the Samians led the revolt against Persia. In the Delian League they held a position of special privilege and remained actively loyal to Athens until 440, when a dispute with Miletus, which the Athenians had decided against them, induced them to secede. With a fleet of sixty ships they held their own for some time against a large Athenian fleet led by Pericles himself, but after a protracted siege were forced to capitulate and degraded to the rank of tributary state. At the end of the Peloponnesian War Samos appears as one of the most loyal dependencies of Athens; it served as a base for the naval war against the Peloponnesians, and as a temporary home of the Athenian democracy during the revolution of the Four Hundred at Athens (411 B.c.), and in the last stage of the war was rewarded with the Athenian franchise. This friendly attitude towards Athens was the result of a series of political revolutions which ended in the establishment of a democracy. After the downfall of Athens Samos was besieged by Lysander and again placed under an oligarchy. In 394 the withdrawal of the Spartan navy induced the island to declare its independence and reestablish a democracy, but by the peace of Antalcidas (387) it fell again under Persian dominion. It was recovered by the Athenians in 366 after a siege of eleven months, and received a strong body of military settlers. After the Samian War (322), when Athens was de rived of Samos, the vicissitudes of the island can no longer be follbwed. For some time (about 275-270 B.c.) it served as a base for the Egyptian fleet, at other periods it recognized the over lordship of Syria; in 189 B.C. it was transferred by the Romans to the kings of Pergamum. Enrolled from 133 in the Roman province of Asia, it sided with Aristonicus (132) and Mithradates (88) a ainst its Overlord, and consequently forfeited its autonomy, which it only temporarily recovered between the reigns of Augustus and Vespasian. Nevertheless, Samos remained comparatively flourishing, and was able to contest with Smyrna and Ephesus the title “ first city of Ionia ”; it was chiefly noted as a health resort and for the manufacture of pottery (see below). Under Byzantine rule Samos became the head of the Aegean theme (military district). After the 13th century it passed through much the same changes of government as Chios (q.'v.), and, like the latter island, became the property of the Genoese firm of Giustiniani (1346-1566). At the time of theTurkish conquest it was severely depopulated, and had to be provided with new settlers, partly Albanians.