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SAN DIEGO—SANDPIPER

of the great duke of Wellington, and incorporated in 1853. Its primary object was the education of the sons of deceased army officers. In the vicinity is Broadmoor Prison for criminal lunatics.

SAN DIEGO, a city, port of entry and the county-seat of San Diego county, in S. California, U.S.A., on the Pacific Ocean, about 10 m. N. of the Mexican border, and about 126 m. (by rail) S.E. of Los Angeles. Pop. (1880) 2637; (1890) 16,159; (1900) 17,700, of whom 3768 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 39,578. It is served by numerous steamship lines and by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé, the Los Angeles & San Diego Beach, the San Diego Southern, and the San Diego, Cuyamaca & Eastern railways. A railway between Yuma, Arizona, and San Diego was under construction in 1910. The harbour, next to that of San Francisco the best in California, has an area of some 22 sq. m. The Federal government has made various improvements in the harbour, building a jetty 7500 ft. long on Zuninga Shoal at the entrance and making a channel 225 ft. wide and 27-28 ft. deep at low tide. The city site, which is a strip of land 25 m. long and 2 to 4 m. wide, is nearly level near the bay. San Diego is the seat of a State Normal School and has a Carnegie library. There is a coaling station of the United States Navy, and the United States government maintains a garrison in Fort Rosecrans. At Coronado (pop. 1900, 935) across the bay are Coronado Beach, and the Hotel del Coronado, with fine botanical and Japanese gardens; on the beach people live in tents except in the stormier season. Within the city, on the top of Point Loma, is the Theosophical Institution of the “Universal Brotherhood.” San Diego has one of the most equable climates in the world, and there are several sanatoriums here. The economic interests centre in fruit culture, especially the raising of citrus fruits and of raisin grapes. There are also warehouses, foundries, lumber yards, saw-mills and planing-mills—logs are rafted here from Washington and Oregon. National City (pop. 1900, 1086), adjoining San Diego on the S. and the S. terminus of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé system, has large interests in lemon packing and the manufacture of oil, citric acid and other lemon by-products. In 1905 the total value of the factory products of the city was $1,974,430 (194.8% more than in 1900).

San Diego is under the commission form of government; in 1905 the city secured as a charter right the power to “recall” by petition any unsatisfactory city official and to elect another in his place, and the initiative and referendum were incorporated in the charter, but were practically inoperative for several years. By a charter amendment of 1909, the city is governed by a commission of a mayor and five councilmen, elected at large.

About 4 m. N. of the business centre of San Diego is the site of the first Spanish settlement in Upper California. It was occupied in April 1769; a Franciscan “mission” (the earliest of twenty-one established in California) was founded on the 16th of July, and a military presidio somewhat later. San Diego began the first revolution against Governor M. Victoria and Mexican authority in 1831, but was intensely loyal in opposition to Governor J. B. Alvarado and the northern towns in 1836. It was made a port of entry in 1828. In 1840 it had a population of 140. It was occupied by the American forces in July 1846, and was reoccupied in November after temporary dispossession by the Californians, no blood being shed in these disturbances. In 1850 it was incorporated as a city, but did not grow, and lost its charter in 1852. In 1867 it had only a dozen inhabitants. A land promoter, A. E. Horton (d. 1909), then laid out a new city about 3 m. S. of the old. Its population increased to 2300 in 1870, and this new San Diego was incorporated in 1872, and was made a port of entry in 1873. The old town still has many ruined adobe houses, and the old “mission” is fairly well preserved. The prosperity of 1867-1873 was followed by a disastrous crash in 1873-1874, and little progress was made until 1884, when San Diego was reached by the Santa Fé railway system. After 1900 the growth of the city was again very rapid.

SANDOMIR, or Sedomierz, a town of Russian Poland, in the government of Radom, 140 m. S.S.E. of Warsaw by river and on the left bank of the Vistula, opposite the confluence of the San. Pop. (1881) 6265, or, including suburbs, 14,710; (1897) 6534. It is one of the oldest towns of Poland, being mentioned as early as 1079; from 1139 to 1332 it was the chief town of the principality of the same name. In 1240, and again in 1259, it was burned by the Mongols. Under Casimir III. it reached a high degree of prosperity. In 1429 it was the seat of a congress for the establishment of peace with Lithuania, and in 1570 the “Consensus Sandomiriensis” was held here for uniting the Lutherans, Calvinists and Moravian Brethren. Subsequent wars, and especially the Swedish (e.g. in 1655) ruined the town even more than did numerous conflagrations, and in the second part of the 18th century it had only about 2000 inhabitants. Here in 1702 the Polish supporters of Augustus of Saxony banded together against Charles XII. of Sweden. The beautiful cathedral was built between 1120 and 1191; it was rebuilt in stone in 1360, and is one of the oldest monuments of Polish architecture. Two of the churches are fine relics of the 13th century. The castle, built by Casimir III. (14th century), still exists. The city gives title to an episcopal see (Roman Catholic).

SANDOWAY, a town and district in the Arakan division of Lower Burma. The town (pop. 1901, 12,845) is very ancient, and is said to have been at one time the capital of Arakan. The district has an area of 3784 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 90,927, showing an increase of 16% in the decade. The country is mountainous, the Arakan range sending out spurs which reach the coast. Some of the peaks in the N. attain 4000 and more ft. The streams are only mountain torrents to within a few miles of the coast; the mouth of the Khwa forms a good anchorage for vessels of from 9 to 10 ft. draught. The rocks in the Arakan range and its spurs are metamorphic, and comprise clay, slates, ironstone and indurated sandstone; towards the S., ironstone, trap and rocks of basaltic character are common; veins of steatite and white fibrous quartz are also found. The rainfall in 1905 was 230.49 in. Except a few acres of tobacco, all the cultivation is rice. Sandoway was ceded to the British, with the rest of Arakan, by the treaty of Yandabo in 1826.

SANDOWN, a watering-place in the Isle of Wight, England, 6½ m. S. of Ryde by rail. Pop. of urban district (1901) 5006. It is beautifully situated on rising ground overlooking Sandown Bay and the English Channel, on the S.E. coast of the island. There is a wide expanse of sandy shore, and bathing is excellent.

SANDPIPER (Ger. Sandpfeifer), the name applied to nearly all the smaller kinds of the group Limicolae which are not Plovers (q.v.) or Snipes (q.v.), but may be said to be intermediate between them. According to F. Willughby in 1676 it was the name given by Yorkshiremen to the bird popularly known in England as the “Summer-Snipe,”—the Tringa hypoleucos of Linnaeus and the Totanus hypoleucus of later writers,—but probably even in Willughby's time the name was of much wider signification. Placed by most systematists in the family Scolopacidae, the birds commonly called Sandpipers seem to form three sections, which have been often regarded as Subfamilies—Totaninae, Tringinae and Phalaropodinae, the last indeed in some classifications taking the higher rank of a Family—Phalaropodidae. This section comprehends three species only, known as Phalaropes or swimming sandpipers, which are distinguished by the membranes that fringe their toes, in two of the species forming marginal lobes,[1] and by the character of their lower plumage, which is as close as that of a duck. The most obvious distinctions between Totaninae and Tringinae may be said to lie in the acute or blunt form of the tip of the bill (with which is associated a less or greater development of the sensitive nerves running almost if not quite to its extremity, and therefore greatly influencing the mode of feeding) and in the style of plumage—the Tringinae, with blunt and flexible bills, mostly assuming a summer-dress in which some tint of chestnut or reddish-brown

  1. These are Phalaropus fulicarius and P. (or Lobipes) hyperboreus, and were thought by some of the older writers to be allied to the Coots (q.v.). The third species is P. (or Steganopus) wilsoni. All are natives of the higher parts of the N. hemisphere, and the last is especially American, though perhaps a straggler to Europe.