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144
SANDYS, F.—SAN FRANCISCO

tendencies were towards opposition, and he was suspected of hostility to the court; but he disarmed the anger of the king by professions of obedience. He was member for Penrhyn in the first parliament of Charles I. in 1625. He died in October 1629.

See Alex. Brown's Genesis of the United States (London, 1890).

SANDYS, FREDERICK (1832-1904), English painter and draughtsman, was born at Norwich on the 1st of May 1832, and received his earliest lessons in art from his father, who was himself a painter. His early studies show that he had a natural gift for careful and beautiful drawing, and that he sought after absolute sincerity of presentment. Sandys worked along the same lines as Millais, Madox Brown, Holman Hunt and Rossetti. He first met Rossetti in 1857, and carried away with him the impression of the painter-poet's features, which he reproduced so cleverly in “A Nightmare,” a caricature of “Sir Isumbras at the Ford,” by Millais. Both the picture and the skit upon it by Sandys attracted much attention in 1857. The caricaturist turned the horse of Sir Isumbras into a donkey labelled “J. R., Oxon.” (John Ruskin). Upon it were seated Millais himself, in the character of the knight, with Rossetti and Holman Hunt as the two children, one before and one behind. Rossetti and Sandys became intimate friends, and for about a year and a quarter, ending in the summer of 1867, Sandys lived with Rossetti at Tudor House (now called Queen's House) in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea. By this time Sandys was known as a painter of remarkable gifts. He had begun by drawing for Once a Week, the Cornhill Magazine, Good Words and other periodicals. He drew only in the magazines. No books illustrated by him can be traced. So his exquisite draughtsmanship has to be sought for in the old bound-up periodical volumes which are now hunted by collectors, or in publications such as Dalziel's Bible Gallery and the Cornhill Gallery and books of drawings, with verses attached to them, made to lie upon the drawing-room tables of those who had for the most part no idea of their merits. Every drawing Sandys made was a work of art, and many of them were so faithfully engraved that they are worthy of the collector's portfolio. Early in the 'sixties he began to exhibit the paintings which set the seal upon his fame. The best known of these are “Vivien” (1863), “Morgan le Fay” (1864), “Cassandra” and “Medea.” Sandys never became a popular painter. He painted little, and the dominant influence upon his art was the influence exercised by lofty conceptions of tragic power. There was in it a sombre intensity and an almost stern beauty which lifted it far above the ideals of the crowd. The Scandinavian Sagas and the Morte d'Arthur gave him subjects after his own heart. “The Valkyrie” and “Morgan le Fay” represent his work at its very best. He made a number of chalk drawings of famous men of letters, including Tennyson, Browning, Matthew Arnold, and James Russell Lowell. Sandys died in Kensington on the 20th of June 1904.

See also Esther Wood, The Artist (Winter number, 1896).

SANDYS, GEORGE (1578-1644), English traveller, colonist and poet, the seventh and youngest son of Edwin Sandys, archbishop of York, was born on the 2nd of March 1578. He studied at St Mary Hall, Oxford, but took no degree. On his travels, which began in 1610, he first visited France; from North Italy he passed by way of Venice to Constantinople, and thence to Egypt, Mt. Sinai, Palestine, Cyprus, Sicily, Naples and Rome. His narrative, dedicated, like all his other works, to Charles (either as prince or king), was published in 1615, and formed a substantial contribution to geography and ethnology. He also took great interest in the earliest English colonization in America. In April 1621 he became colonial treasurer of the Virginia Company and sailed to Virginia with his niece's husband, Sir Francis Wyat, the new governor. When Virginia became a crown colony, Sandys was created a member of council in August 1624; he was reappointed to this post in 1626 and 1628. In 1631 he vainly applied for the secretaryship to the new special commission for the better plantation of Virginia; soon after this he returned to England for good. In 1621 he had already published an English translation of part of Ovid's Metamorphoses; this he completed in 1626; on this mainly his poetic reputation rested in the 17th and 18th centuries. He also began a version of Virgil's Aeneid, but never produced more than the first book. In 1636 he issued his famous Paraphrase upon the Psalms and Hymns dispersed throughout the Old and New Testaments; in 1640 he translated Christ's Passion from the Latin of Grotius; and in 1641 he brought out his last work, a Paraphrase of the Song of Songs. He died, unmarried, at Boxley, near Maidstone, Kent, in 1644. His verse was deservedly praised by Dryden and Pope; Milton was somewhat indebted to Sandys' Hymn to my Redeemer (inserted in his travels at the place of his visit to the Holy Sepulchre) in his Ode on the Passion.

See Sandys' works as quoted above; the travels appeared as The Relation of a Journey begun an. Dom. 1610, in four books (1615); also the Rev. Richard Hooper's edition, with memoir, of The Poetical Works of George Sandys; and Alexander Brown's Genesis of the United States, pp. 546, 989, 992, 994-995, 1032, 1063; article, “Sandys, George,” in Dictionary of National Biography.

SAN FERNANDO, a seaport of southern Spain, in the province of Cadiz, on the Isla de León, a rocky island among the salt marshes which line the southern shore of Cadiz Bay. Pop. (1900), 29,635. San Fernando is one of the three principal naval ports of Spain; together with Ferrol and Cartagena it is governed by an admiral who has the distinctive title of captain-general. The town is connected with Cadiz (4½ m. N.W.) by a railway, and there is an electric tramway from the arsenal (in the suburb of La Carraca) to Cadiz. The principal buildings are government workshops for the navy, barracks, a naval academy, observatory, hospital, bull-ring and a handsome town hall. In the neighbourhood salt in largely produced and stone is quarried; the manufactures include spirits, beer, leather, esparto fabrics, soap, hats, sails and ropes; and there is a large iron-foundry.

San Fernando was probably a Carthaginian settlement. On a hill to the S. stood a temple dedicated to the Tyrian Hercules; to the E. is a Roman bridge, rebuilt in the 15th century after partial demolition by the Moors. The arsenal was founded in 1790. During the Peninsular War the Cortes met at San Fernando (1810), but the present name of the town dates only from 1813; it was previously known as Isla de León.

SAN FRANCISCO, the chief seaport and the metropolis of California and the Pacific Coast, the tenth city in population (1910) of the United States, and the largest and most important city W. of the Missouri river, situated centrally on the coast of the state in 37° 47' 22.55” N. and 122° 25' 40.76” W., at the end of a peninsula, with the ocean on one side and the Bay of San Francisco on the other. Pop. (1850), 34,000; (1890), 298,997; (1900), 342,782, of whom 116,885 were foreign-born and 17,404 coloured (mainly Asiatics); (1910) 416,912.

General Description.—The peninsula is from 6 to 8 m. broad within the city limits. The magnificent bay is some 50 m. long in its medial line, and has a shore-line of more than 300 m.; its area is about 450 sq. m., of which 79 are within the three-fathom limit, including San Pablo Bay. This great inland water receives the two principal rivers of California, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin. The islands of the bay are part of the municipal district, as are also the Farallones, a group of rocky islets about 30 m. out in the Pacific. The bay islands are high and picturesque. Several are controlled by the national government and fortified. On Alcatraz Island is the United States Prison, and on Goat Island the United States Naval School of the Pacific. The old Spanish “presidio” is now a United States military reservation, and another smaller one, the Fort Mason Government Reservation, is in the vicinity. The naval station of the Pacific is on Mare Island in San Pablo Bay, opposite Vallejo (q.v.). Between 1890 and 1900 the harbour entrance from the Pacific was strongly fortified; it lies through what is called the Golden Gate, a strait about 5 m. long and 1 m. wide at its narrowest point. The outlook from Mt Tamalpais (2592 ft.), a few miles N., gives a magnificent