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was at first uncertain, for the pro-slavery Democrats had controlled the state and city, although parties were remaking in the late 'fifties. About 75,000 arms are supposed to have been surreptitiously sent to California by the secessionist Secretary of War, J. B. Floyd; and the pro-slavery party seems to have planned to try for union with the Confederacy, or to organize a Pacific Coast republic. Thomas Starr King (1824-1864), a Unitarian minister, was the heroic war-time figure of the city, the leader of her patriotism. Her money contributions to the Sanitary Funds were, it is said, greater than those of any city in the country; and in every other way she abundantly evidenced her love for the Union. The curious Chapman (or Asbury Harpending) case of 1863 was a Confederate scheme involving piracy on Federal vessels in the Pacific and an effort to gain the secession of the state. It had no practical importance.

From 1859-1877 was the “silver era” of San Francisco (see California). It paralleled the excitement and gambling of 1849, and despite losses was a great stimulus to the city's growth. In September 1869 the Central Pacific line was completed to Oakland, and in the next four years there was a crash in real estate values inflated during the railway speculation. In 1876 railway connexion was made with Los Angeles. The 'seventies were marked by the growth of the anti-Chinese movement, and labour troubles, culminating in 1877-1879 with the “sandlots” agitation and the formation of the Constitution of 1879 (see California), in all of which San Francisco was the centre. The feeling against the Chinese found expression sometimes in unjust and mean legislation, such as the famous “queue ordinance” (to compel the cutting of queues—the gravest insult to the Chinese), and an ordinance inequitably taxing laundries. The Chinese were protected against such legislation by the Federal courts. The startling and romantic changes of earlier years long ago gave way to normal municipal problems and ordinary municipal routine. In the winter of 1894 the California Midwinter International Exposition was held in Golden Gate Park. Since 1898 the governmental changes previously referred to, the location of a new trans-continental railway terminus on the bay, and the new outlook to the Orient, created by the control of the Philippines by the United States, and increased trade in the Pacific and with the Orient, have stimulated the growth and ambitions of the city.

Special mention must be made of the two citizens to whom San Francisco, as it is to-day, owes so much, viz. James Lick (1796-1876), a cold man with few friends, who gave a great fortune to noble ends; and Adolph Sutro (1830-1898), famous for executing the Sutro Tunnel of the Comstock mines of Virginia City, Nevada, and the donor of various gifts to the city.

The partial destruction of San Francisco by earthquake and fire in 1906 was one of the great catastrophes of history. Earthquakes had been common but of little importance in California until 1906. In more than a century there had been three shocks called “destructive” (1839, 1865, 1868) and four “exceptionally severe” at San Francisco, besides very many light shocks or tremors. The worst was that of 1868; it caused five deaths, and cracked a dozen old buildings. Heavy earthquake shocks on the morning of the 18th of April 1906, followed by a fire which lasted three days, and a few slighter shocks, practically destroyed the business section of the city and some adjoining districts. The heaviest shock began at 12 minutes 6 seconds past 5 o'clock a.m., Pacific standard time, and lasted 1 minute 5 seconds. Minor shocks occurred at intervals for several days. The earthquake did serious damage throughout the coast region of California from Humboldt county to the southern end of Fresno county, a belt about 50 m. wide. The damage by earthquake to buildings in San Francisco was, however, small in comparison to that wrought by the fire which began soon after the principal shock on the morning of the 18th. About half the population of the city, it was estimated, spent the nights while the fire was in progress out of doors, with practically no shelter. Some 200,000 camped in Golden Gate Park and 50,000 in the presidio military reservation. The difficulty of checking the fire was increased through the breaking of the water-mains by the earthquake, draining the principal reservoirs. Traffic by street cars was made impossible by the twisting of the tracks.

To stop the fire rows of buildings were dynamited. In this way many fine mansions on Van Ness Avenue were destroyed, and the westward advance of the conflagration was stopped at Franklin Street, one block West. General Frederick Funston, in command at the presidio, with the Federal troops under him, assumed control, and the city was put under military law, the soldiers assisting in the work of salvage and relief. On the 21st the fire was reported under control. A committee of safety was organized by the citizens and by the city authorities acting in conjunction with General Funston, and measures were adopted for the prevention of famine and disease, permanent camps being established for those who had been rendered homeless and not provided for by removal to other cities. Assistance with money and supplies was immediately given by the nation and by foreign countries, a committee of the Red Cross Society being put in charge of its administration. By the 23rd of April about $10,000,000 had been subscribed by the people of the United States; Congress voted $2,500,000 from the national treasury. The committee organized as the Red Cross Relief Corporation completed its work in 1908, having spent for the relief of the hungry, for the sick and injured, and for housing and rehabilitation of individuals and families, in round numbers $9,225,000. As the result of the earthquake and fire about 500 persons lost their lives; of those two were shot as looters. Buildings valued at approximately $105,000,000 were destroyed. The total loss in damage to property has been variously estimated at from $350,000,000 to $500,000,000. To cover the loss there was about $235,000,000 of insurance in some 230 companies. Reconstruction in the burned section began at once, with the result that it was practically rebuilt in the three years following the earthquake. Wages for men employed in building, owing in part to scarcity of labour but chiefly to action of the labour unions, rose enormously, masons being paid $12 a day for a day of 8 hours. High prices of materials and of haulage and freight rates added difficulty to the task of rebuilding, which was accomplished with remarkable energy and speed. In May 1907 there was a street-car strike of large dimensions. Van Ness Avenue, which during the process of rebuilding had assumed the character of a business thoroughfare, did not maintain this status, the business centre returning to the reconstructed Market Street. A new retail business district developed in what is known as the mission district and in Fillmore Street. A new residence district known as Parkside was developed south of Golden Gate Park.

For description and general features, see Doxey's Guide to San Francisco and the Pleasure Resorts of California (San Francisco, 1897); and various guides and other publications of the California Development Board (formed by consolidation of the State Board of Trade and California Promotion Committee) in San Francisco. For economic interests and history see the bibliography of the article California. See also Frank Soule and others, Annals of San Francisco (San Francisco, 1858); John S. Hittell, A History of the City of San Francisco (San Francisco, 1878); B. E. Lloyd, Lights and Shades of San Francisco (San Francisco, 1876); C. W. Stoddard, In the Footprints of the Padres (San Francisco, 1900); Bernard Moses, The Establishment of Municipal Government in San Francisco (Johns Hopkins University Studies, 1889). Many legal questions of interesting constitutional, treaty and common law import have been decided in the Federal (and state) courts in cases involving Chinese; see the collections of reports. For good accounts of the great earthquake and fire, see D. S. Jordan (ed.), The California Earthquake of 1906 (1906); Aitken and E. Hilton, History of the Earthquake and Fire in San Francisco (1907); G. K. Gilbert and others, San Francisco Earthquake and Fire (Washington, 1907).

SANGALLO, the surname of a Florentine family, several members of which became distinguished in the fine arts. I. Giuliano di Sangallo (1445-1516) was an architect, sculptor, tarsiatore and military engineer. His father, Francesco di Paolo Giamberti, was also an able architect, much employed by Cosimo de' Medici. During the early part of his life Giuliano worked-chiefly for Lorenzo the Magnificent, for whom he built