Open main menu
This page needs to be proofread.

Jacopo's chief claim to distinction rests upon the numerous fine Venetian buildings which he designed, such as the public library, the mint, the Scuola della Misericordia, the Palazzo de Cornari and the Palazzo Delfino, with its magnificent staircase the last two both on the grand canal. Among his ecclesiastical works the chief were the church of S. F antino, that of S. Martino, near the arsenal, the Scuola di S. Giovanni degli Schiavoni and, finest of all, the church, now destroyed (see VENICE), of S. Geminiano, a very good specimen of the Tuscan and Composite orders used with the graceful freedom of the Renaissance. In 1 S4 5 the roof of the public library, which he was then constructing, fell in; on this account he was imprisoned, fined and dismissed from the office of chief architect of the cathedral, to which he had been appointed by a decree of the signoria on the 7th of April 1 529. Owing to the intervention of Titian, Pietro Aretino and others, he was soon set at liberty, and in 1549 he was restored to his post. He did good service for St Mark's by encircling its failing domes with bands of iron. Sansovino's architectural works have much beauty of proportion and grace of ornament, a little marred in some cases by an excess of sculptured decoration, though the carving itself is always beautiful, both in design and execution. He used the classic orders with great freedom and tasteful invention. His numerous pupils were mostly men of but little talent.

SANTA ANA, a city and the county-seat of Orange county, southern California, U.S.A., 34 m. S.E. of Los Angeles. Pop. (1900) 4933 (506 foreign-born); (1910) 8429. Itis served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé, the Southern Pacific and the Pacific Electric railways. The city is situated about IO m. from the ocean, in the lower western foothills of the Santa Ana mountains. There are numerous artesian wells in the surrounding region, and there is a good irrigation system. (For a description of the irrigation canal see AQUEDUCT.) Santa Ana is in the orange, lemon and walnut region of southern California, and in the only important celery-growing district of the state; the celery is grown in great quantities in the large district known as the “ Peatlands ” (about 9 m. from the city), which is under laid by a deposit of peat from 1 to loo ft. deep. Other important products of the county are petroleum, barley, sugar beets, apricots and lima beans. Santa Ana was first platted in 1869 and was incorporated in 1888. Its growth since 1900 has been rapid.

SANTA ANA, the capital of the department of Santa Ana, Salvador, 50 m. by rail N.W. of San Salvador.» Pop.(1905) about 48,000. It, is situated abput 2100 ft. above sea-level, in a valley surrounded by high mountains, which are covered by coffee and sugar plantations and woods. It is the second city of the republic in size, and has broad shady streets and fine open squares. The municipal offices, hospital, literary institute and barracks are noteworthy buildings, and the parish church, Doric in style, is generally regarded as one of the finest in Central America. Cigars, pottery, starch, spirits, sugar and various textiles are manufactured, and the export trade in coffee and sugar has developed rapidly since the opening in 1900 of a railway to San Salvador and the Pacific port of Acajutla.

SANTA-ANNA, ANTONIO LOPEZ DE (1795-1876), Mexican soldier and politician, was born at Ialapa in the province of Vera Cruz on the 21st of February 1795. He was neither a general nor a statesman, nor even an honest man, but he was the most conspicuous and continuously active of the military adventurers who filled Spanish America with violence during the first two generations of its independence. He entered the colonial army of Spain as a cadet in 1810, and served as one of the Creole supporters of the Spanish government till 1821. In that year Mexico fell away from the mother country. Iturbide, who was master of the country for the time, made Santa-Anna brigadier and governor of La Vera Cruz. Till about 1835 he pursued the policy of keeping his hold on his native province of Vera Cruz, and influencing the rest of the country by alternately supporting and upsetting the central government. He first helped to ruin Iturbide, who wished to make himself emperor. He proclaimed the Republic, and was then a supporter of the successful federal party. Federalism suited him very well since it left him in command of Vera Cruz. In 1829 he defeated a foolish attempt of the Spaniards to reassert their authority in Mexico. He kept himself in reserve till events gave him a chance to upset the president of the day, Bustamente, whom he defeated at Casas Blancas on the 12th of November 1832. He could now have become president himself, but preferred to rule through dummies. Now that he saw an opportunity to become master he became reactionary and abolished the federal constitution. This led to the revolt of Texas, which was full of settlers from the United States. Santa-Anna invaded Texas and gained some successes, but was surprised and taken prisoner at San Iacinto on the 21st of April 1836. The Texans had a good excuse for shooting him, as he conducted war in a ferocious way. They preferred to let him save his life by ordering his troops to evacuate the country. He was released in February 18 37, and had fora time to “ retire to his estates ” in Vera Cruz. In 18 38 the French government made an attack on the town, and Santa-Anna, by a display of his redeeming virtue of personal courage, lost a leg but regained his influence. He became military dictator in 1841, and governed by violence till he was driven into exile by mutiny in 1845. He fled to Cuba, but was recalled to command against the invading army from the United States in 1846. The Americans beat him, and once more (1848) he went into exile. In 18 53 he was recalled and named president for life, with the title of Serene Highness. In less than two years he was again overthrown and had to go abroad in August 1855. For the rest of his life Santa-Anna was hanging on the outskirts of Mexico, endeavouring to find an opening to renew his old adventures. He tried the emperor Maximilian, the French and the United States to see if they would serve his turn. But he had outlived his time. T he'empty title of grand-marshal given by Maximilian was' all he gained. When in 1867 he attempted to head a rising, he was captured and condemned to death, but spared on the ground. that he was in his dotage. At last, worn out by age, he accepted an amnesty and returned to the city of Mexico, Where he died in obscurity on the 20th of June 1876.,

See H. H. Bancroft, History of the Pacific States of North America, vols. viii. and ix. (San Francisco, 1882-1890).

SANTA BARBARA, a city and the county-seat of Santa Barbara county, in southern California, U.S.A., on the coast plain on the southern slope of the Santa Ynez Mountains. Pop. (1900) 6587 (1143 foreign-born); (1910) 11,659. It is served by the Coast Line of the Southern Pacific railway system. With picturesque surroundings, excellent bathing beach and ideal climate, Santa Barbara is one of the most popular of the health and pleasure resorts of California. The monthly average of the mean temperatures for 23 years (1881-1903 inclusive) varied from 53° in January to 67° in August. Nowhere in California is plant life more varied and beautiful; in the vicinity are walnut, olive, lemon and orange groves. North-west of the city are the valuable oil fields of Santa Barbara county, notably the Santa Maria field, 6 m. S. of Santa Maria, and the region between Lompoc and Santa Maria, first developed in 1903. A presidio (Spanish military post) was established here in 1782, and a Franciscan mission, by Iunipero Serra, about four years later. The mission building is well preserved, and is probably the greatest single attraction of Santa Barbara. It is now the Franciscan headquarters of the Pacific coast, and near it is a Franciscan college. Immediately behind it is -the picturesque Mission Canyon. Santa Barbara took part in the revolution of 1829, and in the sectional struggles following leaned to the side of Monterey and the North. It was occupied by the Americans in August 1846, then (without bloodshed) by the Californians in October, and again definitively by the American forces on the 27th of November 1846. In 1850 it was incorporated as a city, though already long a Mexican “ ciudad.” It remained off the railway route until 1887. .

SANTA BARBARA, a town of Iloilo province, island of Panay, Philippine Islands, on the S.E. coast, on the Ialaur river, a few miles N. of Iloilo, the capital of the province. Pop. (1903), after the annexation of Zarraga, Lucena, Pavia and Leganés,