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The port was in 1753 made one of the puzrtas habilitados, or ports privileged to trade with America, and in 1755 it received the title of city. Charles V. landed here in 1522 when he came to take possession of the Spanish crown, and from this port Charles I. of England embarked on his return from his visit in search of a wife (1623). The city was sacked by the French under Soult in 1808.

SANTAREM, the capital of the district of Santarem, Portugal; on the right bank of the river Tagus, SI m. by rail N .E. of Lisbon. Pop. (1900) 8628. The older part of the city is built on high ground overlooking the Tagus; it contains the ruined castle of Alcagova, famous in the middle ages as a royal residence, and is partly enclosed by ruined walls. Below is Ribeira de Santarem, a comparatively modern river-port, and on the opposite bank is Almeirim, a village which was also a royal residence until 17 5 5, when it was almost entirely destroyed by earthquake. Santarem has some trade in fish and agricultural produce, including wine and olive oil. Its chief buildings are an ecclesiastical seminary, the largest in Portugal; the late Gothic church of the Convento da Graga, which contains the tomb of Pedro Alvares Cabral, the first Portuguese to visit South America (1502); the Igreja do Milagro, an early Renaissance church; the chapel of Santa Rita, with a painting by Ignatius Xavier, who was born here in 1724; the church of Santa Maria, built in 1244, but with Manoellian additions made early in the 16th century; the secularized 13thcentury church of San Francisco; the church of Sao ]oao, which has a Moorish minaret for a belfry, and has been converted into an archaeological museum; and the church of Santa Iria (St Irene), from which the name of the city is derived. There is a fine bridge across the Tagus.

Santarem is the Roman Scallabis, renamed Praesidium /ulium by Julius Caesar. From its position in the Tagus valley it became an important fortress during the wars between the Moors, Portuguese and Spaniards. Alphonso VI. of Castile first took it from the Moors in 1093, but it was recaptured and occupied by them until 1147, when Alphonso I. of Portugal recovered it. The Almohades endeavoured to win it back in 1184, but were defeated. At Santarem King Diniz died in 1325; the murderers of Inez de Castro (q.'v.) were executed in 1357; and Prince Alphonso, only son of John II., was drowned in 1491. Here the 15thcentury navigator John of Santarem was born, and here the Cardinal-King Henry (1512-1580) was born, abdicated and died. The Miguelites were defeated here in 1834 (see PORTUGAL! History). In 1868 Santarem was raised to the rank of a city. The administrative district of Santarem coincides with the eastern part of the ancient province of Estremadura (q.v.); pop. (rgoo) 283,154; area 2555 sq. m.

SANTAREM, a city of Brazil in the state of Para, on the right bank of the Tapajos, near its entrance into the Amazon. Pop. (1890) of the town and municipio, 12,062. It is one of the most important towns of the Amazon between Para and Manaos, and isaport of call for all river steamers, and astation on the Amazon cable line. The national government has made it a station in its system of wireless telegraphy in the Amazon valley. Seen from the river the town is attractive in appearance, and consists of a European (white) and an Indian quarter, the latter of palm thatched huts. Ruins remain of a fort built in colonial times to protect the population against hostile Indians. Its principal public buildings are a municipal hall and tribunal, a large municipal warehouse, a market (1897), theatre and two churches. The productions of the neighbourhood are cacao, Brazil nuts, rubber, tobacco, sugar-cane and cattle; and the rivers furnish an abundance of fish, which are cured here at the season of low-water, when turtle eggs are gathered up stream for the manufacture of oil and butter. The Tapajos is navigable for steamers to the rapids, 170 m. above Santarem, and for small boats nearly to Diamantino, Matto Grosso, and a considerable trade comes from Matto Grosso and the settlements along its banks. After the American Civil War a colony of Americans settled in the vicinity, , but were unsuccessful in founding a permanent colony. Santarem was founded by a Jesuit missionary in 1661 as an Indian aldeia, and became a city in 1848.

SANTAROSA, ANNIBALE SANTORRE DI ROSSI DE POMAROLO, Count of (1783-1825), Piedmontese insurgent, and leader in the revival (Resorgimento) of Italy, was born at Savigliano near Coni on the 18th of November 1783. He was the son of a general officer in the Sardinian army who was killed at the battle of Mondovi in 1796. The family had been recently ennobled and was not rich. Santarosa entered the service of Napoleon during the annexation of Piedmont to France, and was sub-prefect of Spezia from 1812 to 1814. He remained, however, loyal in sentiment to the house of Savoy, and, after the restoration of the king of Sardinia in 1814, he continued in the public service. During the brief campaign of the Sardinian army on the south-eastern frontier of France in 1815 he served as captain of grenadiers, and was afterwards employed in the ministry of war. The revolutionary and imperial epoch had seen a great development of Italian patriotism, and Santarosa was aggrieved by the great extension given to the Austrian power in Italy in 1815, which reduced his own country to a position of inferiority. The revolutionary outbreak of 1820, which extended from Spain to Naples, seemed to afford the patriots an opportunity to secure the independence of Italy. When in 1821 the Austrian army was moved south to coerce the Neapolitans, Santarosa entered into a conspiracy to obtain the intervention of the Piedmontese in favour of the Neapolitans by an attack on the Austrian lines of communication. The conspirators endeavoured to obtain the co-operation of the prince of Carignano, afterwards King Charles Albert, who was known to share their patriotic aspirations. On the 6th of March 1821 Santarosa and three associates had an interview with the prince, and on the 10th they carried out the military “ pronunciamiento ” which proclaimed the Spanish constitution. The movement had no real popular support, and very soon collapsed. During the brief predominance of his party Santarosa showed great decision of character. He was arrested and would have died on the' scaffold if sympathisers had not rescued him. He fled to France, and lived for a time in Paris under the name of Conti. Here he wrote in French and published in 1822 his La revolution piémontaise, which attracted the notice of Victor Cousin, by whom he was aided and concealed. The French government discovered his hiding-place, and he was imprisoned and expelled from Paris. After a short stay first at Alengon and then in Bourges, he passed over to England, where he found refuge in London with Ugo Foscolo, and made a few English friends. He went to Nottingham, in the hope of being able to support himself by teaching French and Italian. The miseries of exile rather than any hope of advantage led him to accompany his Countryman Giacinto Collegno to Greece in November 1824. The Italians were ill-treated by the Greeks and were not well looked on by the Philhellene committees, who thought that their presence would offend the powers. Santarosa was killed, apparently because he was too miserable and desperate to care to save his life, when the Egyptian troops attacked the island of Sphacteria, near Navarino, on the 8th of May 1825.

See Atto Vannucci, I Martiri della libertd italiano (Milan, 1877), and vol. ix. of the series called I Contemporanei italiani (Turin), in which there is a life by Angelo Degubernatis. Santarosa's correspondence was edited by Signor Bianchi, Lettere di Santorre Santarosa (Turin, 1877). A personal description of him by Victor Cousin will be found in the Revue des deux mondes for the 1st of March 1840. Cousin dedicated to him the fourth volume of his translation of Plato, and the long dedication is a compressed biography.

SANTA ROSA, a city and the county-seat of Sonoma county, California, U.S.A., situated in a broad valley (altitude about ISO ft.) among the Coast Ranges, about 52 m. N. of San Francisco. Pop. (1900) 6673, (1029 foreign-born); (1910) 7817. It is served by the North-Western Pacific and the Southern Pacinc railways. Santa Rosa is in a region admirably adapted to the

growing of hops-the city is an important hop market-and of fruit and grain, and the handling of these products is a leading industry. Poultry and dairying interests are also important. It was the home of Luther Burbank (b. 1849), the originator of many new flowers, fruits and vegetables, including the Burbank potato, the pineapple quince, and the stoneless prune. Santa Rosa was first' settled about 1838, was laid out ancl incorporated in 1853, replaced Sonoma as the county-seat in 1854,