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striking campanile. The theatre and the railway station are also fine buildings. The streets are wide and regular, and there are several broad squares. A new fine-art gallery was erected in 1884 by the painter Bogolubov, who bequeathed to the city his collection of modern pictures and objects of art. A school of drawing and the public library are in the same building, the Radishchev Museum.

Agriculture and gardening support a section of the population. The cultivation of the sunflower deserves special mention. Of the manufacturing establishments the distilleries rank first in im ortance; next come the liqueur factories, flour-mills, oil-works, rail)way workshops and tobacco-factories. The city has a trade not only in corn, oil, hides, tallow, woollen cloth, wool, fruits and various raw produce exported from Samara, but also in salt from the Crimea and Astrakhan, in iron from the Urals and in wooden wares from the upper Volga governments. Saratov also supplies south-eastern Russia with manufactured articles and grocery wares imported from central Russia. The shallowness of the Volga opposite the town and the immense shoals along its right bank are, however, a great drawback to its usefulness as a river-port.

The town of Saratov was founded at the end of the 16th century, on the left bank of the Volga, some 7 m. above the present site, to which it was removed about 1605. The place it now occupies (Sary-tau or Yellow Mountain) has been inhabited from remote antiquity. Although founded for the maintenance of order in the Volga region, Saratov was several times pillaged in the 17th and 18th centuries. The peasant leader Stenka Razin took it, and his followers kept it until 1671; the insurgent Cossacks of the Don pillaged it in 1708 and the rebel Pugachev in 1774.

SARAVIA, ADRIAN (1531-1613), theologian, was born at Hesdin, Pas-de-Calais, of a Spanish father and Flemish mother, both Protestants. He entered the ministry at Antwerp, had a hand in the Walloon Confession and gathered a Walloon congregation in Brussels. He migrated to the Channel Islands early in the reign of Elizabeth; and, after a. period as schoolmaster, officiated (1564-1566) at St Peter's, Guernsey, then under Presbyterian discipline. Subsequently he held the mastership of the grammar school at Southampton, and in 1 582 was professor of divinity and minister of the reformed church at Leiden. From Leiden he wrote (9 June 1 58 5) to Lord Burghley advising the assumption of the protectorate of the Low Countries by Elizabeth. He became domiciled in England in 15871-1588, leaving Holland on the discovery of his complicity in a political plot, and was appointed (1 588) rector of Tattenhall, Staffordshire. His first work, De diversis gradibus ministrorum Evangelii (1590; in English, 1592, and reprinted), was an argument for episcopacy, which led to a controversy with Theodore Beza, and gained him incorporation (9 June 1590) as D.D. at Oxford, and a prebend at Gloucester (22 Oct. 1591). On 6th December 1595 he was admitted to a canonry at Canterbury (which he resigned in 1602), and in the same year to the vicarage of Lewisham, Kent, where he became an intimate friend of Richard Hooker, his near neighbour, whom he absolved on his deathbed. He was made prebendary of Worcester (1601) and of Westminster (5 July 1601). In 1604, or early in 1605, he presented to James I. his Latin treatise on the Eucharist, which remained in the Royal Library unprinted, till in 1885 it was published (with translation and introduction) by Archdeacon G. A. Denison. In 1607 he was nominated one of the translators of the Authorised Version of 1611, his part being Genesis to end of Kings On the 23rd of March 1610 he exchanged Lewisham for the rectory of Great Chart, Kent. He died at Canterbury on the 15th of January 1612, and was buried in the cathedral on the 19th of January.

See the particulars collected in Denison's “ Notice of the Author ” prefixed to De sacfa eucharislia. (A. GO. *)

SARAVIA, a town of the province of Negros Occidental, island of Negros, Philippine Islands, on the N.W. coast and the coast road, 16 m. N.N.E. of Bacolod, the capital. Pop. (1903) 13,13 2. The town is in a rich sugar-producing region, and sugar culture is the only important industry. The language is Panay Visayan.

SARAWAK, a state situated in the north-west of Borneo; area, 55,000 sq. m.; pop. about 500,600. The coast line extends from Tanjong Datu, a prominent cape in 2° 3' N., northwards to the mouth of the river Lawas 5° 10' N. and 115° 30' W., the whole length of the coast line being about 440 m. in a straight line; but a tract, 80 m. in length, of Brunei territory still remains between the mouths of the Baram and Limbang rivers. The frontier of the southern portion of Sarawak is formed by the Serang, Kelingkang and Batang Lupar ranges of mountains.

The inland or eastern boundary is formed by the broken range of mountains which constitutes the principal watershed of the island. Of these the highest peaks are: Batu Puteh (5400 ft.), Tebang (10,000 ft.), Batu Bulan (7000 ft.), Ubat Siko (4900 ft.), Bela Lawing (7000 ft.) and Batu Leihun (6000 ft.), from w ich the Rejang and Baram rivers, on the Sarawak side, and the Koti and Balungun rivers, on the Dutch side, take their rise. North of Sarawak is the Pamabo mountain range (8000 ft.), whence flow the rivers Limbang and Trusan, and the mountains Batu Lawei (8000 ft.) and Lawas (6000 ft.). The interior is mountainous, the greatest elevations being Mount Mulu (9000 ft.), of limestone formation, Batu Lawei (8000 ft.), Pamabo (8000 ft.), Kalulong, Dulit, Poeh and Penrisam. The Rejang is the largest river, the Baram ranking second, the Batang Lupar third and the Limbang fourth. The Rejang is navigable for small steamers for about 160 m., the Baram for about 100 m., but there is a formidable bar at the mouth of the Baram. The chief town of Sarawak, Kuching, with a population of about 30,000, is situated on the Sarawak river 20 m. from its mouth, and can be reached by steamers of a thousand tons.

The fauna is rich. The most important mammals are the maias, or orang utan, the gibbon, the proboscis, semnopithecus and macacus monkeys; lemurs, cats, otters, bears, porcupines, wild pigs, wild cattle, deer and pangolin. Bats, shrews, rats and squirrels are included among the smaller mammals, while sharks, porpoises and dugongs are found along the coast. Of birds, Sarawak has over five hundred species; fish and reptiles are abundant; the jungle swarms with insect life, and is rich in many varieties of fern and orchid.

The mineral wealth gives promise of considerable development. The Borneo Company for some years have successfully worked gold from the quartz reefs at Bau, on the Sarawak river, by the cyanide process, as well as antimony and cinnabar. Antimony occurs in pockets in various localities, notably at Sariki, in the Rejang district, and at Burok Buang and Telapak, in the Baram district and in the river Atun. Cinnabar has also been found in small quantities at Long Liman and in the streams about the base of Mount Mulu. Sapphires of good quality, but too small to be of commercial value, are found in large numbers in the mountain streams of the interior. Coal is worked at Sadong and Brooketon, and shipped to Singapore. The great coal-field of Selantik, along the Kelingkang range in the Batang Lupar district, is being developed. Indications of coal seams have also been found in the river Mukah; at Pela us in the Rejang; at Similajau and Tutau and on Mount Dulit, in the Baram district.

Timber is one of the most valuable products, but with the exception of bilian (iron wood) from the river Rejang, little is exported. The most important timbers are bilian, merebo, rasak, kruin, tapang, kranji, benaga, bintangor, gerunggang, medang, meranti and kapor. Except near the banks of the rivers, which have been cleared by the natives for farming purposes, the whole country is thickly clothed with timber. The industrial establishments also comprise sago mills, brick-works, cyanide-works and saw-mills.

In 1904 the total trade of Sarawak (Foreign and Coastwise) reache a value of $16,466,241 as compared with $4,564,200 in 1890. The remarkable increase in trade is shown by the following table:—

Sago flour



The revenue increased from $457,596 in 1894 to $1,321,879 in 1904; and the expenditure increased in the same period from $486,533 to $1,225,384. The Public Debt of Sarawak on the 1st of January 1905 was $25,000.

The population of the state, in addition to a small number of Europeans, government officials and others, a few natives of British India, and a large number of Chinese traders and pepper planters, consists of semi-civilized Malays in the towns and villages of the coast districts and of a number of wild tribes of Indonesian affinities in the interior. Of these the most important are the Dyaks, Milanaus, Kayans, Kenyahs, Kadayans and Muruts. No census has ever been taken. “ Without the Chinaman,” said the Raja (Pall Mall Gazette, 19th September 1883), “we could do nothing. When not allowed to form secret societies he is easily governed, and this he is forbidden to do on pain of death.” The Milanaus, who live in the northern districts, have adopted the Malay-dress, and in many cases have become Mahommedans; they are a contented and laborious people. Slavery has been abolished, except among certain of the inland tribes among whom it still obtains in a very mild form: