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9
ST HELENS—ST INGBERT

(London, 1816); Extracts from the St Helena Records from 1673 to 1835 (compiled by H. R. Janisch, sometime governor of the island, Jamestown, 1885); Charles Darwin, Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands (1844). For a condensed general account consult (Sir) C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies (vol. iii., West Africa, 2nd ed., Oxford, 1900). See also M. Danvers, Report on the Records of the India Office, vol. i. pt. i. (London, 1887); The Africa Pilot, pt. ii. (5th ed., 1901); Report on the Present Position and Prospects of the Agricultural Resources of the Island of St Helena, by (Sir) D. Morris (1884; reprinted 1906). (R. L. A.; F. R. C.)


  ST HELENS, a market town and municipal, county, and parliamentary borough of Lancashire, England, 14 m. E.N.E. from Liverpool, on the London & North-Western and Great Central railways. Pop. (1891) 72,413; (1901) 84,410. A canal communicates with the Mersey. The town is wholly of modern development. Besides the town hall and other public buildings and institutions there may be mentioned the Gamble Institute, erected and presented by Sir David Gamble, Bart., for a technical school, educating some 2000 students, and library. Among several public pleasure grounds the principal are the Taylor Park of 48 acres, and the smaller Victoria and Thatto Heath Parks. This is the principal seat in England for the manufacture of crown, plate, and sheet glass; there are also art glass works, and extensive copper smelting and refining works, as well as chemical works, iron and brass foundries, potteries and patent medicine works. There are Collieries in the neighbourhood. To the north of the town are a few ecclesiastical ruins, known as Windleshaw Abbey, together with a well called St Thomas well, but the history of the foundation is not known. The parliamentary borough (1885) returns one member. The county borough was created in 1888. The town was incorporated in 1868, and the corporation consists of a mayor, 9 aldermen and 27 councillors. Area 7285 acres.


  ST HELIER, the chief town of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands. Pop. (1901) 27,866. It lies on the south coast of the island on the eastern side of St Aubin's Bay. The harbour is flanked on the W. by a rocky ridge on which stands Elizabeth Castle, and commanded on the east by Fort Regent on its lofty promontory. The parish church is a cruciform building with embattled tower, dating in part from the 14th century. It contains a monument to Major Peirson, who on the occasion of a French attack on Jersey in 1781 headed the militia to oppose them, and forced them to surrender, but was killed as his followers were at the point of victory. The French leader, Baron de Rullecourt, is buried in the churchyard. The spot where Peirson fell, in what is now called Peirson Place, is marked by a tablet. A large canvas by John Singleton Copley depicting the scene is in the National Galleny, London, and a copy is in the court house of St Helier. This building (la Cohue), in Royal Square, is the meeting-place oi the royal court and deliberative States of Jersey. Victoria College was opened in 1852 and commemorates a visit of Queen Victoria and the prince consort to the island in 1846. A house in Marine Terrace is distinguished as the residence of Victor Hugo (1851–1855). Elizabeth Castle, which is connected with the mainland by a causeway, dates from 1551–1590; and in 1646 and 1649 Prince Charles resided here. In 1649 he was proclaimed king, as Charles II., in jersey by the royalist governor George Carteret. On actually coming to the throne he gave the island the mace which is still used at the meetings of the court and States. Close to the castle are remnants of a chapel or cell, from which the rock on which it stands is known as the Hermitage, dating probably from the 9th or 10th century, and traditionally connected with the patron saint Helerius.


  SAINT-HILAIRE, AUGUSTIN FRANÇOIS CESAR PROUVENÇAL DE, commonly known as August de (1799–1853), French botanist and traveller, was born at Orleans on the 4th of October 1799. He began to publish memoirs on botanical subjects at an early age. In 1816–1822 and in 1830 he travelled in South America, especially in south and central Brazil, and the results of his study of the rich flora of the regions through which he passed appeared in several books and numerous articles in scientific journals. The works by which he is best known are the Flora Brasiliae Meridionalis (3 vols., folio, with 192 coloured plates, 1825–1832), published in conjunction with A. de Jussieu and J. Cambessèdes, Histoire des plantes les plus remarquables du Brésil et de Paraguay (1 vol. 4to, 30 plates, 1824), Plantes usuelles des Brésiliens (1 vol. 4to, 70 plates, 1827–1828), also in conjunction with De Jussieu and Cambessèdes, and Voyage dans le district des diamants et sur le littoral du Brésil (2 vols., 8vo, 1833). His Leçons de botanique, comprenant principalement la morphology végétale (1840), was a comprehensive exposition of botanical morphology and of its application to systematic botany. He died at Orleans on the 30th of September 1853.


  ST HUBERT, a small town of Belgium in the province of Luxemburg and in the heart of the Ardennes. Pop. (1904) 3204. It is famous for its abbey church containing the shrine of St Hubert, and for its annual pilgrimage. According to tradition the church and a monastery attached to it were founded in the 7th century by Plectrude, wife of Pippin of Herstal. The second church was built in the 12th century, but burnt by a French army under Condé in the 16th century. The present building is its successor, but has been restored in modern times and presents no special feature. The tomb of St Hubert—a marble sarcophagus ornamented with bas-reliefs and having four statuettes of other saints at the angles—stands in one of the side Chapels. The legend of the conversion of St Hubert—a hunter before he was a saint—by his meeting in the forest a stag with a crucifix between its antlers, is well known, and explains how he became the patron saint of huntsmen. The place where he is supposed to have met the stag is still known as “ la converserie ” and is almost 5 m. from St Hubert on the road to La Roche. The pilgrimage of St Hubert in May attracts annually between thirty and fifty thousand pilgrims. The buildings of the old monastery- have been utilized for a state training-school for waifs and strays, which contains 'on an average five hundred pupils. In the middle ages the abbey of St Hubert was one of the most important in Europe, owning forty 'villages with an annual income of over 80,000 crowns. During the French Revolution, when Belgium was divided into several departments, the possessions of the abbey were sold for £75,000, but the bishop of Namur was permitted to buy the church itself for £1350.


ST HYACINTHE, a city and port of entry of Quebec, Canada, and capital of St Hyacinthe county, 32 m. E.N.E. of Montreal, on the left bank of the river Yamaska and on the Grand Trunk, Canadian Pacific, Intercolonial, and Quebec Southern railways. Pop. (1901) 9210. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and contains a classical college, dairy school, two monasteries and several other educational and charitable institutions. It has manufactures of organs, leather, woollens and agricultural implements, and is an important distributing centre for the surrounding district.


SAINTINE, JOSEPH XAVIER (1798-1865), French novelist and dramatist, whose real surname was Boniface, was born in Paris on the 10th of July 1798. In 1823 he produced a volume of poetry in the manner of the Romanticists, entitled Poèmes, odes, épîtres. In 1836 appeared Picciola, the story of the comte de Charney, a political prisoner in Piedmont, whose reason was saved by his cult of a tiny flower growing between the paving stones of his prison yard. This story is a masterpiece of the sentimental kind, and has been translated into many European languages. He produced many other novels, none of striking individuality with the exception of Seul (1857), which purported to be the authentic record of Alexander Selkirk on his desert island. Saintine was a prolific dramatist, and collaborated in some hundred pieces with Scribe and others, usually under the name of Xavier. He died on the 21st of January 1865.


ST INGBERT, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria on the Rohrbach, 14 m. by rail W. of Zweibrücken. Pop. (1905) 15,521. It has coal-mines and manufactures of glass and machinery. There are also large iron and steel works in the town, and other industries are the making of powder, leather, cigars, soap and cotton. St Ingbert is named after the Irish saint, St Ingobert, and belonged for 300 years to the electorate of Trier.