Open main menu
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
230
SATNA—SATTERLEE

in life, of that child, though of less amount, it is a satisfaction of the whole, or in part. This application of the doctrine is based on the maxim that “equality is equity,” as is also the rule (b) that where a legacy bequeathed by a parent, or one in loco parentis, is as great as, or greater than, a portion or provision previously secured to the child, a presumption arises that the legacy was intended by the parent as a complete satisfaction. In each of the above cases, of course, the presumption may be rebutted by evidence of the testator's intentions.

In theology, the doctrine of satisfaction is the doctrine that the sufferings of Christ are accepted by the divine justice as a substitute for the punishment due for the sins of the world (see Atonement).

SATNA, a British station in Central India, within the state of Rewah, with a station on the East Indian railway, 102 m. S.W, from Allahabad. Pop. (1901) 7471. It is the headquarters of the political agent for Baghelkhand, and an important centre of trade.

SATPURA, a range of hills in the centre of India. Beginning at the lofty plateau of Amarkantak (about 82° E.), the range extends westward almost to the W. coast. From Amarkantak an outer ridge runs S.W. for about 100 m. to a point known as the Saletekri hills in Balaghat district. As it proceeds westward the range narrows from a broad tableland to two parallel ridges enclosing the valley of the Tapti, as far as the famous hill-fortress of Asirgarh. Beyond this point the Khandesh hills, which separate the valley of the Nerbudda from that of the Tapti, complete the chain as far as the Western Ghats. The mean elevation is about 2500 ft.; but the plateaus of Amarkantak and Chauradadar in the east of Mandla district rise to nearly 3500 ft., and many of the peaks and some of the tablelands exceed this altitude. The hill of Khamla in Betul district is 3700 ft., which is also the general height of the Chikalda hills overlooking the Berar plain, while the Pachmarhi hills east of Betul, rising abruptly from the Nerbudda valley, culminate in Dhokgarh at an elevation of 4500 ft. lust east of Asirgarh there is a break in the range, through which passes the railway from Bombay to Jubbulpore, the elevation at this point being about 1240 ft. The extreme length of the range is about 600 m.; the breadth, which is 100 m. at its head across Balaghat and Mandla, diminishes to the narrow ridges of Nimar.

SATRAE, in ancient geography, a Thracian people, inhabiting part of Mount Pangaeus between the rivers Nestus (Mesta) and Strymon (Struma). According to Herodotus, they were independent in his time, and had never been conquered within the memory of man. They dwelt on lofty mountains covered with forests and snow, and on the highest of these was an oracle of Dionysus, whose utterances were delivered by a priestess. They were the chief workers of the gold and silver mines in the district. Herodotus is the only ancient writer who mentions the Satrae, and Tomaschek regards the name not as that of a people but of the warlike nobility among the Thracian Dii and Bessi. J. E. Harrison and others identify them with the Satyri (Satyrs), the attendants and companions of Dionysus in his revels, and also with the Centaurs. The name Satrokentae, a Thracian tribe according to Hecataeus (quoted in Stephanus of Byzantium), seems to support the second identification.

See Herodotus vii. 110-112; J. E. Harrison, Prolegomena to Greek Religion (1903), p. 379; W. Tomascheck, Die alten Thraker (1893).

SATRAP [Pers. Khshatrapāvan, i.e. “protector (superintendent) of the country (or district),” Heb. sakhshadrapan, Gr. ἐξαιτράπης (insc. of Miletus, Sitzungsber. Berl. Ak. 1900, 112), ἐξαιδραπεύων (insc. of Mylasa, Dittenberger, Sylloge, 95), ἐξατράπης (insc. of Mylasa Lebas iii. 388, Theopomp p. 111), shortened into σατράπης], in ancient history, the name given by the Persians to the governors of the provinces. By the earlier Greek authors (Herodotus, Thucydides and often in Xenophon) it is rendered by ὕπαρχος “lieutenant, governor,” in the documents from Babylonia and Egypt and in Ezra and Nehemiah by pakha, “governor”; and the satrap Mazaeus of Cilicia and Syria in the time of Darius III. and Alexander (Arrian iii. 8) calls himself on his coins “Mazdai, who is [placed] over the country beyond the Euphrates and Cilicia.” Cyrus the Great divided his empire into provinces; a definitive organization was given by Darius, who established twenty great satrapies and fixed their tribute (Herodot. iii. 89 sqq.) The satrap was the head of the administration of his province; he collected the taxes, controlled the local officials and the subject tribes and cities, and was the supreme judge of the province to whose “chair” (Nehem. iii 7) every civil and criminal case could be brought. He was responsible for the safety of the roads (cf. Xenophon, Anab. i. 9. 13), and had to put down brigands and rebels. He was assisted by a council of Persians, to which also provincials were admitted; and was controlled by a royal secretary and by emissaries of the king (esp. the “eye of the king”). The regular army of his province and the fortresses were independent of him and commanded by royal officers; but he was allowed to have troops in his own service (in later times mostly Greek mercenaries). The great provinces were divided into many smaller districts, the governors of which are also called satraps and hyparchs. The distribution of the great satrapies was changed occasionally, and often two of them were given to the same man. When the empire decayed, the satraps often enjoyed practical independence, especially as it became customary to appoint them also as generals in chief of their army district, contrary to the original rule. Hence rebellions of satraps became frequent from the middle of the 5th century; under Artaxerxes II. occasionally the greater part of Asia Minor and Syria was in open rebellion. The last great rebellions were put down by Artaxerxes III. The satrapic administration was retained by Alexander and his successors, especially in the Seleucid empire, where the satrap generally is designated as strategus; but their provinces were much smaller than under the Persians.

In later times the cult of a god Satrapes occurs in Syrian inscriptions from Palmyra and the Hauran; by Pausanias vi. 25, 6, Satrapes is mentioned as the name of a god who had a statue and a cult in Elis and is identified with Korybas. The origin of this god is obscure; perhaps it arose from a cult connected with a statue or a tomb of some satrap.

See further under Persia: Ancient History, from the Achaemenid period onwards, and works there quoted (especially section v. § 2).

(Ed. M.)

SATRICUM (mod. Conca), an ancient town of Latium, situated some 30 m. to the S.E. of Rome, in a low-lying region to the S. of the Alban Hills, to the N.W. of the Pomptine Marshes. It was accessible direct from Rome by a road running more or less parallel to the Via Appia, to the S.W. of it. It is said to have been an Alban colony: it was a member of the Latin league of 499 B.C. and became Volscian in 488. It was several times won and lost by the Romans, and twice destroyed by fire. After 346 B.C. we hear of it only in connexion with the temple of Mater Matuta. A. Nibby (Analisi della carta dei dintorni di Roma, Rome, 1848, iii. 64) was the first to fix the site upon the low hill, surrounded by tufa cliffs, on which were still scanty remains of walling in rectangular blocks of the same material, which is now occupied by the farm-house of Conca. One mile W.N.W., on the hill above Le Ferriere, remains of an archaic temple, ascribed to Mater Matuta, were discovered by excavation in 1896. The work was begun under the direction of Professor H. Graillot of the University of Bordeaux, member of, the French School of Rome, but after two weeks' work was suspended by order of the Italian government, and then resumed under the supervision of their own officials. The objects discovered are in the Museo di Papa Giulio at Rome. Another Satricum lay on the right bank of the Liris, not far from Arpinum.

See H. Graillot in Mélanges de l'école française de Rome (1896), 131; and Notizie degli scavi (1896), passim. (T. As.)

SATSUMA ISLANDS, a group of islands belonging to Japan, lying westward of the province of Satsuma (31° 40′ N. and 129° 40′ E.). The two principal are Kami-Koshiki-shima (24½ m. by 5½) and Shimo-Koshiki-shima (8½ m. by 5¼).

SATTERLEE, WALTER (1844-1908), American figure and genre painter, was born in Brooklyn, New York, on the 18th of January 1844. He graduated at Columbia University in 1863, studied in the National Academy of Design, and with Edwin