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257
SAW—SAW-FLY

while the French occupied the whole of Piedmont. After the defeat of the French by the Austro-Russian armies during Bonaparte's absence in Egypt, Charles Emmanuel landed at Leghorn, hoping to regain his kingdom; but Napoleon returned, and by his brilliant victory at Marengo he reaffirmed his position in Italy. The king retired to Naples, abdicated once The Restoration.more (1802), and entered the Society of Jesus; he uonfr' died in Rome in 1819. Victor Emmanuel I. (1802–1820) remained in Sardinia until by the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna (June 9, 1815) his dominions were restored to him, with the addition of Genoa.

From this time the fortunes of the house of Savoy are bound up with those of Italy (see Italy, History). Victor Emmanuel I. abdicated in 1821 in favour of his brother Charles Felix (1821-18 3 1). The latter being without a son, the succession devolved upon Charles Albert, of the cadet line of the princes of Carignano, who were descended from Thomas, youngest son of Charles Emmanuel I. Charles Albert abdicated, on the evening of his defeat at Novara (April 20, 1849), in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II. (1849–1878), who on the 18th of February 1861 was proclaimed king of Italy. Victor Emmanuel had married in 1842 Maria Adelaide, daughter of the archduke Rainer, who bore him several children, viz. Princess Clothilde (b. 1843), who married Prince Napoleon; Humbert, prince of Piedmont (1844); Amadeus, duke of Aosta (b. 1845); Oddone, duke of Montferrat (b. 1846); and- Princess Maria Pia (b. 1847). Humbert, who Humber, in 1868 had married Princess Margherita of Savoy, daughter of Victor Emmanuel's brother, the duke of Genoa, became king of Italy on his father's death in 1878. In July 1900 he was assassinated by an anarchist at Monza. He was succeeded by his only son, Victor Emmanuel III., born in 1869, who during his father's lifetime had borne the title of prince of Naples. The new king had married Princess Elena of Montenegro in 1896, by whom he has had four children, viz. Princess Yolanda Margherita (b. 1901), Princess Mafalda (b. 1902), Humbert, prince of Piedmont (b. 1904), and Princess Giovanna (b. 1907). The second son of Victor Emmanuel II., Amadeus, duke of Aosta, was offered the crown of Spain by the Cortes in 1870, which he accepted, but, finding that his rule was not popular, he voluntarily abdicated in 1873 rather than cause civil war. In 1867 he married Princess Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo della Cisterna, who bore him three sons, viz. Emmanuel Philibert, duke of Aosta (b. 1869), commanding an Italian army corps; Victor Emmanuel, count of Turin; and Louis Amadeus, duke of Abruzzi, an Italian naval officer and a distinguished traveller, explorer and man of science. Amadeus's first wife having died in 1876, he married Princess Maria Letizia Bonaparte in 1888, .who bore him a son, Humbert. count of Salemi (b. in 1889).

Bibliography.—Luigi Cibrario, Storia della monarchic di Savoia (Turin, 1840), for the early history; E. Ricotti, Staria della monarchic Piemontese, in 6 vols. (Florence, 1861, &c.), 'for the period from 1504 to 1675; D. Carutti, Storia della diplomazla della carte di Sauoia (7 vols., Rome, 1875, &c.), from 1494; Nicomede Bianchi, Storia della monarchic Piemontese (Turin, 1877), for the period from Victor Amadeus Ill. onward; id., Storia della diplomazfia europea in Italia (8 vols., Turin, 1865), very important for recent history; A. Wiel, The Romance of the House of Savoy (London, 1898), a popular and somewhat disjointed work.  (L. V.*) 


SAW, a tool for cutting wood or other material, consisting of a blade with the edge dentated or toothed and worked either by hand or by steam, water, electric or other power (see Tools). The word in O. Eng. is saga and appears, in such forms as Dutch zaag, Dan. sav, Ger. Säge, in Teutonic languages. The root is sag-, to cut, which is seen in Lat. secare. It is also the base of such English words as scythe, sickle, &c. It must be distinguished from “saw,” a maxim, proverb, which is etymologically and in meaning a “ saying, ” from the Teutonic base sag- to say; cf. “Saga,” Ger. sagen.


SAWANTWARI, or Savantvadi, a native state of Bombay, India. Area, 925 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 217,732, showing an increase of 13% during the preceding decade. The surface is broken and rugged, interspersed with densely-wooded hills; in the valleys are gardens and groves of cocoa-nut and betel-nut palms. Sawantwari has no considerable rivers; the chief streams are the Karli on the north and the Terakhol on the south, both navigable for small craft. The climate is humid and relaxing, with an average annual rainfall of 150 in. The estimated revenue is £28,000. The chief, whose title is sar desai, is a Mahratta of the Bhonsla family, who traces back his descent to the 16th century. There are special manufactures of ornaments carved out of bison-horn, painted and inlaid lacquer-work, and gold and silver embroidery. The town of Sawantwari, or Vadi, is picturesquely situated on the bank of a large lake, 17 m. E. of the seaport of Vengurla. Pop. (1901) 10,213.

Before the establishment of Portuguese power Sawantwari was the highway of a great traffic between the coast and the interior; but during the 16th and 17th centuries trade suffered much from the rivalry of the Portuguese, and in the disturbances of the 18th century it almost entirely disappeared. In consequence of piracy, the whole coast-line (including the port of Vengurla) was ceded to the British in 1812.


SAW-FLY, the name given to the members of a well-known subdivision (Symphyta) of the Hymenoptera characterized by possessing a sessile abdomen which hides the base of the posterior legs. The antennae vary in their structure and in the number of their joints. Two of the processes of the ovipositor are modified to form saws, which when at rest lie in a sheath formed of two other processes which are modified into protective structures or valves. The larvae are usually caterpillars, but may be distinguished from the caterpillars of Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) by the greater number of their " , abdominal pro-legs; usually 6, to 8 pairs are present. When alarmed they roll themselves up in a spiral fashion; some also discharge a thin fluid from lateral pores situated above the spiracles. The females place their eggs in small incisions made by means of their saws in the soft parts of leaves. Usually one egg is placed in each slit. Some species merely attach their eggs in strings to the exterior of the leaves. With each incision a drop of fluid is usually excreted, which serves to excite a flow of sap to the wounded part. The egg is said to absorb this sap, and so to increase in size. One genus (N emalus) alone forms galls. These occur in the young leaves of the willow, a tree which the true gall-flies do not attack. N émalus venlricosus resembles the bees and wasps in the fact that the parthenogenetic ova produce only males; as a rule in the animal kingdom the absence of fertilization results in the production of females.

Turnip Saw-Fly (Athalia spinarum). Saw-Fly
(magnified, with lines to left showing natural
size), caterpillars, pupa and pupa-case.

The injury which the saw-flies inflict upon crops or young trees is almost entirely brought about by the voracious habits of the larvae. These possess well-developed mouth-appendages, by means of which they gnaw their way out of the leaf in which they have been hatched, and then eat it. In this way the turnip saw-fly (Athalia spinarum), not to be confused with the turnip “fly,” a beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum), attacks the leaves of the turnip, often com letely consuming the leafage of acres at a time. The pine saw-fly (Lophyrus pini) causes great damage to plantations of young Scotch fxrs, devounngh the buds, the leaves and even the bark of the young shoots. her species infest currant and gooseberry bushes, consuming the soft parts of the leaves, and leaving only the tough veins. The only remedy in most cases is to collect and kill the larvae when they first appear, or to spray the plants with some arsenical, wash. The best known family of saw-flies is that of the Tenthredinidae, most of whose caterpillars feed on leaves. The larvae of other families—the Cephidae and Siricidae-are internal feeders, burrowing in succulent