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268
SAXONY


heathenism. These events compelled Charles to leave the Avar war and return to Saxony in 794; and until 799 each year had its Saxon campaign. At the same time in 794, as a fresh experiment in policy, every third man was transported; while the king was assisted in his work of conquest by the Abotrites who inhabited a district east of the Elbe. The resistance Charles met with was not serious, and these expeditions took the form of plundering raids. Oaths and hostages were exacted; and many Saxon youths were educated in the land of the Franks as Christians, and sent back into Saxony to spread Christianity and Frankish influence. The southern part of the country was now fairly tranquil, and the later campaigns were directed mainly against the Nordalbingians, the branch of the Saxons living north of the Elbe, who suffered a severe reverse near Bornhoved in 798. Further transportation's were carried out, and in 797 Charles issued another capillary which mitigated the severe provisions of the capitulary of 782; and about 8o2 the Saxon law was committed to writing. The Nordalbingians were still restless, and it is recorded that their land was devastated in 802. Two years later a final campaign was undertaken, when a large number of these people were transported into the country of the Franks and their land was given to the Abotrites. The conversion of the Saxons to Christianity, which during this time had been steadily progressing, was continued in the reign of the emperor Louis I., the Pious, who, however, took very little interest in this part of his empire. Bishoprics were founded at Bremen, Münster, Verden, Minden, Paderborn, Osnabrück, Hildesheim and Hamburg, and one founded at Seligenstadt was removed to Halberstadt. Some of these bishoprics were under the authority of the archiepiscopal see of Cologne, others under that of Mainz, and this arrangement was unaltered when in 834 Hamburg was raised to an archbishopric. In 847 the bishopric of Bremen was united with Hamburg, but the authority of this archbishopric extended mainly over the districts north and east of the Elbe. The abbey of Corvey, where rested the bones of St Vitus, the patron saint of Saxony, soon became a centre of learning for the country, and the Saxons undertook with the eagerness of converts the conversion of their heathen neighbours. After a period of tranquillity a reaction set in against Frankish influences, and in 840 the freemen and liti separated themselves from the nobles, formed a league, or stellinga, and obtained a promise from the emperor Lothair I. that he would restore their ancient constitution. This rising, which was probably caused by the exaction of tithes and the oppression of Frankish oficials, aimed also at restoring the heathen religion, and was put down in 842 by king Louis the German, who claimed authority over this part of the Carolingian empire. The influences of civilization and the settlement of F rankish colonists in various parts of Saxony facilitated its incorporation with the Carolingian empire, with which its history is for some time identified. By the treaty of Verdun in 843 Saxony fell to Louis the German, but he paid little attention to the northern part of his kingdom which was harassed by the Normans and the Slavs. About 850, however, he appointed a margrave to defend the Limes Saxoniae, a narrow strip of land on the eastern frontier, and this office was given to one Liudolf who had large estates in Saxony, and who was probably descended from an Engrian noble named Bruno. Liudolf, who is sometimes called “ duke of the East Saxons, ” carried on a vigorous warfare against the Slavs and extended his influence over other parts of Saxony, He died in 866, and was succeeded by his son Bruno, who was killed Eghting the Normans in 880. Liudolf's second son, Otto the Illustrious, was recognized as duke of Saxony by King Conrad I., and on the death of Burkhard, margrave of Thuringia in 9o8, obtained authority over that country also. He made himself practically independent in Saxony, played an important part in the affairs of the Empire, and is said to have refused the German throne in 911. He died in QI2 and was succeeded by his son Henry I., the Fowler. Between this prince and Conrad I., who wished to curb the increasing power of the Saxon duke, a quarrel took place; but Henry not only retained his hold over Saxony and Thuringia, but on Conrad's death in 919 was elected German king. He extended the Saxon frontier almost to the Oder, improved the Saxon forces by training and equipment, established new marks, and erected forts on the frontiers for which he provided regular garrisons. Towns were walled, where it was decreed markets and assemblies should be held, churches and monasteries were founded, civilization was extended and learning encouraged. Henry's son, Otto the Great, was crowned emperor in 962, and his descendants held this dignity until the death of the emperor Otto III. in IOO2. Otto retained Saxony in his own hands for a time, though in 938 he had some difficulty in suppressing a revolt led by his half-brother Thankmar. The Slavs were driven back, the domestic policy of Henry the Fowler was continued, the Saxon courts became a centre of learning visited by Italian scholars, and in 968 an archbishopric was founded at Magdeburg for the lands east of the Elbe. In 960 Otto gave to a trusted relative Hermann, afterwards called Billung, certain duties and privileges on the eastern frontier, and from time to time appointed him as his representative in Saxony. Hermann gradually extended his authority, and when he died in Q73 was followed by his son Bernard I., who was undoubtedly duke of Saxony in 986. When Henry II. was chosen German king in rooz he met the Saxons at Merseburg, and on promising to observe their laws Bernard gave him the sacred lance, thus entrusting Saxony to his care. Bernard was succeeded by his son Bernard II., who took up a hostile attitude towards the German kings, Conrad II. and Henry III. His son and successor Ordulf, who became duke in 1059, carried on a long and obstinate struggle with Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen, who was compelled to cede one-third of his possessions to Ordulf's son Magnus in 1066. The emperor Henry III. sought to win the allegiance of the Saxons by residing among them, and built a castle at Goslar and the Harzburg; and the emperor Henry IV. also spent much time in Saxony.

In 1070 Otto of Nordheim, duke of Bavaria, who held large estates in this country, being accused of a plot to murder Henry, was placed under the ban, his possessions were declared forfeited and his estates plundered. Otto, in alliance with Magnus, won considerable support in Saxony, but after some fighting both submitted and were imprisoned; and Magnus was still in confinement when on his father's death in IO72 he became titular duke of Saxony. As he refused to give up his duchy he was kept in prison, while Henry confiscated the estates of powerful nobles, demanded the restoration of ducal lands by the bishops, and garrisoned newly-erected forts with Swabians, who provisioned themselves from the surrounding country. These proceedings aroused suspicion and discontent, which were increased when the emperor assembled an army, ostensibly to attack the Slavs. The Saxon nobles refused to join the host until their grievances were redressed, and in 1073 a league Was formed at Wormesleben. When the insurgents under Duke Otto were joined by the Thuringians, Henry was compelled in IO74 to release Magnus and to make a number of concessions as the price of the peace of Gerstungen; which, however, was short-lived, as the peasants employed in pursuance of its terms in demolishing the forts, desecrated the churches and violated the ducal tombs. Henry, having obtained help from the princes of the Rhineland, attacked and defeated the Saxons at Hohenburg near Langensalza, rebuilt the forts, and pardoned Otto, whom he appointed administrator of the country. The Saxons, however, were not quite subdued; risings took place from time to time, and the opponents of Henry IV. found considerable support in Saxony. During the century which followed the death of Hermann Billung, there had been constant warfare with the Slavs, but although the emperors had often taken the field, the Saxons had been driven back to the Elbe, which was at this time their eastern boundary. In 1106 Magnus died, and the German king Henry V. bestowed the duchy upon Lothair, count of Supplinburg, whose wife Richenza inherited the Saxon estates of her grandfather Otto of Nordheim, on the death of her brother Otto in 1116. Lothair quickly made himself independent, defeated Henry at Welfesholz in 1115, and prosecuted the war

against the Slavs with vigeui. In 112-Q; he became German