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peculiar force to the German people, especially in periods of political despondency. But since the re-establishment of the German empire in 1871 there has been, at least in intellectual circles, a certain waning of his popularity, the Germans of to-day realizing that Goethe more fully represents the aspirations of the nation. In point of fact, Schiller's genius lacks that universality which characterizes Goethe’s; as a dramatist, a philosopher, an historian, and a lyric poet, he was the exponent of ideas which belong rather to the Europe of the period before the French Revolution than to our time; we look to his high principles of moral conduct, his noble idealism and optimism, rather as the ideal of an age that has passed away than as the expression of the more material ambitions of the modern world.

The first edition of Schiller's Sämtliche Werke appeared in 1812–1815 in 12 vols. and was edited by Schiller's most intimate friend, C. G. Körner. Of the countless subsequent editions mention need only be made here of the historisch-kritische Ausgabe by K. Goedeke and others (15 vols., 1867–1876); the edition published by Hempel and edited by R. Boxberger and W. von Maltzahn (16 vols., 1868–1874); that in Kürschner's Deutsche Nationalliteratur, vols. 118-129 (1882–1890), edited by R. Boxberger and A. Birlinger; and the latest Cotta edition (Säkularausgabe), edited by E. von der Hellen and others (17 vols., 1904–1905). A critical edition of Schiller's Briefe was published by F. Jonas (7 vols.) in 1892-1896; the chief collections of his correspondence are: Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und Goethe (1828–1829, edited by F. Muncker, 4 vols., 1893); Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und W. von Humboldt (1830, edited by F. Muncker, 1893); Schillers Briefwechsel mit Körner (1847, edited by L. Geiger, 1893); Schiller und Lotte (1856, 4th ed. 1893); Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und Cotta, ed. by W. Vollmer (1876).

The chief biographies of Schiller are the following: T. Carlyle, Life of Friedrich Schiller (1824; German translation with an introduction by Goethe, 1830); Caroline von Wolzogen, Schillers Leben (1830, 5th ed. 1876, cheap reprint, 1884); K. Hoffmeister, Schillers Leben (1838–1842); G. Schwab, Schillers Leben (1840, 2nd ed. 1844); E. Palleske, Schillers Leben und Werken (1858–1859, 14th ed. 1894, Eng. trans. 1885); H. Viehoff, Schillers Leben (1875, new ed. 1888); H. Düntzer, Schillers Leben (1881); J. Sime, Schiller (1882); R. Weltrich, F. Schiller (vol. i., 1890); O. Brahm, Schiller (vols. i.-ii., 1888–1892); J. Minor, Schiller, sein Leben und seine Werke (vols. i.-ii., 1890); J. Wychgram, Schiller (1895. 3rd ed. 1898, popular ed. 1905); O. Harnack, Schiller (1898, 2nd ed. 1905); L. Bellermann, Schiller (1901); C. Thomas, Life and Works of Schiller (1901); K. Berger, Schiller (vol. i., 1905); E. Kühnemann, Schiller (1905). See also E. Boas, Schillers Jugendjahre (1856); E. Müller, Schillers Mutter (1894); by the same, Schillers Jugenddichtung und Jugendleben (1896); A. Streicher, Schillers Flucht von Stuttgart (1836, reprint, 1905); E. Müller, Regesten zu Schillers Leben und Werken (1900); A. Kontz, Les Drames de la jeunesse de Schiller (1899); E. Kühnemann, Kants und Schillers Begründung der Asthetik (1895); V. Basch, La Poetique de Schiller (1902); K. Tomaschek, Schiller in seinem Verhältnisse zur Wissenschaft (1862); F. Überweg, Schiller als Historiker und Philosoph (1884); O. Harnack, Die klassische Ästhetik der Deutschen (1892); W. Fielitz, Studien zu Schillers Dramen (1876); L. Bellermann, Schillers Dramen: Beiträge zu ihrem Verständnis (2 vols., 1888–1891; 2nd ed. 1898); K. Werder, Vorlesungen über Schillers Wallenstein (1889); A. Köster, Schiller als Dramaturg (1891); L. Belling, Schillers Metrik (1883); K. Fischer, Schiller-Schriften (1891–1892); J. W. Braun, Schiller im Urteile seiner Zeitgenossen (3 vols., 1882); J. G. Robertson, Schiller after a Century (1905).

 (J. G. R.) 

SCHILTBERGER, JOHANN or HANS (1381–1440?), German traveller and writer, was born of a noble family in 1381 (May 9th ?), probably at Hollern near Lohof, half way between Munich and Freising, on what was then a property of his family. In 1394 he joined the suite of Lienhart Richartinger, and went off to fight under Sigismund, king of Hungary (afterwards emperor), against the Turks on the Hungarian frontier. At the battle of Nicopolis (Sept. 28th, 1396) he was wounded and taken prisoner: when he had recovered the use of his feet, Sultan Bayezid I. (Ilderim) took him into his service as a runner (1396–1402). During this time he seems to have accompanied Ottoman troops to certain parts of Asia Minor and to Egypt. On Bayezid’s overthrow at Angora (July 20th, 1402), Schiltberger passed into the service of Bayezid’s conqueror Timur: he now appears to have followed Themurlin to Samarkand, and perhaps also to Armenia and Georgia. After Timur’s death (February 17th, 1405) his German runner first became a slave of Shah Rukh, the ablest of Timur’s sons; then of Miran Shah, a brother of Shah Rukh; then of Abu Bekr, a son of Miran Shah, whose camp roamed up and down Armenia. He next accompanied Chekre, a Tatar prince living in Abu Bekr’s horde, on an excursion to Siberia, of which name Schiltberger gives us the first clear mention in west European literature. He also probably followed his new master in his attack on the Old Bulgaria of the middle Volga, answering to the modern Kazan and its neighbourhood. Wanderings in the steppe lands of south-east Russia; visits to Sarai, the old capital of the Kipchak Khanate on the lower Volga and to Azov or Tana, still a trading centre for Venetian and Genoese merchants; a fresh change of servitude on Chekre’s ruin; travels in the Crimea, Circassia, Abkhasia and Mingrelia; and finally escape (from the neighbourhood of Batum) followed. Arriving at Constantinople, he there lay hid for a time; he then returned to his Bavarian home (1427) by way of Kilia, Akkerman, Lemberg, Cracow, Breslau and Meissen After his return he became a chamberlain of Duke Albert III., probably receiving this appointment in the first instance before the duke’s accession in 1438.

Schiltberger’s Reisebuch contains not only a record of his own experiences and a sketch of various chapters of contemporary Eastern history, but also an account of countries and their manners and customs, especially of those countries which he had himself visited. First come the lands "this side" of Danube, where he had travelled; next follow those between the Danube and the sea, which had now fallen under the Turk; after this, the Ottoman dominions in Asia; last come the more distant regions of Schiltberger’s world, from Trebizond to Russia and from Egypt to India. In this regional geography the descriptions of Brusa; of various west Caucasian and Armenian regions; of the regions around the Caspian, and the habits of their peoples (especially the Red Tatars); of Siberia; of the Crimea with its great Genoese colony at Kaffa (where he once spent five months); and of Egypt and Arabia, are particularly worth notice. His allusions to the Catholic missions still persisting in Armenia and in other regions beyond the Euxine, and to (non-Roman ?) Christian communities even in the Great Tatary of the steppes are also remarkable. Schiltberger is perhaps the first writer of Western Christendom to give the true burial place of Mahomet at Medina: his sketches of Islam and of Eastern Christendom, with all their shortcomings, are of remarkable merit for their time: and he may fairly be reckoned among the authors who contributed to fix Prester John, at the close of the middle ages, in Abyssinia. His work, however, contains many inaccuracies; thus in reckoning the years of his service both with Bayezid and with Timur he unaccountably multiplies by two. His account of Timur and his campaigns is misty, often incorrect, and sometimes fabulous: nor can von Hammer’s parallel between Marco Polo and Schiltberger be sustained without large reservations.

Four MSS. of the Reisebuch exist: (1) at Donaueschingen in the Furstenberg Library, No. 481; (2) at Heidelberg, University Library, 216; (3) at Nuremberg, City Library, 34; (4) at St Gall, Monast. Library, 628 (all of 15th century, the last fragmentary). The work was first edited at Augsburg, about 1460; four other editions appeared in the 15th century, and six in the 16th; in the 19th the best were K. F. Neumann’s (Munich, 1859), P. Bruun’s (Odessa, 1866, with Russian commentary, in the Records of the Imperial University of New Russia, vol. i.), and V. Langmantel’s (Tubingen, 1885); "Hans Schiltbergers Reisebuch," in the 172nd volume of the Bibliothek des literarischen Vereins in Stuttgart. See also the English (Hakluyt Society) version, The Bondage and Travels of Johann Schiltberger ..., trans. by Buchan Telfer with notes by P. Bruun (London, 1879); von Hammer, "Berechtigung d. orientalischen Namen Schiltbergers," in Denkschriften d. Konigl. Akad. d. Wissenschaften (vol. ix., Munich, 1823–1824); R. Rohricht, Bibliotheca geographica Palaestinae (Berlin, 1890, pp. 103-104); C. R. Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, iii. 356-378, 550, 555.  (C. R. B.) 

SCHIMMEL, HENDRIK JAN (1825–), Dutch poet and novelist, was born on the 30th of June 1825, at ’S Graveland, in the province of North Holland, where his father was a notary and the burgomaster., From 1836 to 1842 Schimmel served in his father's office, and upon his death he was taken into the office of the agent of the Dutch Treasury in Amsterdam, exchanging in 1849 for a post with the Dutch Trading Company there. In 1863 he became a director of the Amsterdam Credit Association. His first volume of poems appeared in 1852; but it was as a writer of historical dramas in blank verse and one of the regenerators of the Dutch stage that his literary position was made. His finest production was Struensee (1868), which was preceded by Napoleon Bonaparte (1851) and Juffrouw Serklaas (“Mrs Serklaas,” 1857). Among his other dramatic works may be mentioned Joan Woutersz (a drama, 1847), Twee