distinctly define the opposing elements and then to seek their harmonious combination by the aid of a deeper conception. Apart from the positive and permanent value of the higher unities which he succeeds in establishing, the light and suggestiveness of his discussions and treatment of the great points at issue in all the principal fields of human thought, unsatisfactory as many of his positions may be considered, make him one of the most helpful and instructive of modern thinkers. And, since the focus of his almost universal thought and inquiry and of his rich culture and varied life was religion and theology, he must be regarded as the classical representative of modern effort to reconcile science and philosophy with religiqln and theology, and the modern world with the Christian c urc
Schleiermacher's collected works were published in three sections: (I) Theological (II vols.); (2) Sermons (10 vols., ed. 1873-1874, 5 vols.); (3) Philosophical and Miscellaneous (9 vols., Berlin, 1835-1864). His Pzidagogische Schriften were separately published by Platz (3rd ed., 1902). Of lives of him the best are his own correspondence. Aus Schleiermachers Leben in Briefen, published by W. Dilthey (Berlin, 1858-1863, in 4 vols., Eng. trans. by Rowan); Leben Schleiermachers by Dilthey (vol. i., 1870, the period from 1768-1804); Friedrich Schleiermacher, ein Lebens- u. Charakterbild, by D. Schenkel (Elberfeld, 1868); a selection of the letters by M. Rade (Jena, 1906). See also E. von Willick, Aus Schleiermachers Hause, Jugenderinnerungen seines Stiefsohnes (1909). The accounts and critiques of his philosophy, ethics and theology are numerous; some of the most valuable are: J. Schaller, Vorlesungen 12ber Schleiermacher (Halle, 1844); G. Weisenborn, Darstellung und Krilik der Schleiermachefschen Glaubenslehre (1849); F. Vorlander, Schleiermachers Siltenlchre (Marburg, 1851); W. Bender, Schleiermazhers Theologie mit ihren philosophischen Grundlagen (1876-1878); O. Ritschl, Schleiermachers Stellung zum Christentum in seinen Reden uber die Religion (1888); and Schleiermachers Theorie von der Frommigkeit (1897); O. Kirn, Schleiefmacher und die Romantik (1895); H. Bleek, Die Grundlagen der Christologie Schleiermachers (1898); M. Fischer, Schleiermacher (1899); Liilmann, Das Bild des Christentums bei den grossen deutschen Idealisten (1901), and Schleiermacher der Kirchenvater der 19. Jahrhunderls (1907); Stephan, Die Lehre Schleiermachers von der Erlésung (1901); 'Theile, Schleiermachers Theologie und ihre Bedeutung für die 'Gegen'wart (1903); G. Thimme, Die religionsphilosophischen Pnimissen der Schleiermachefschen Glaubenslehre (1901); H. Sueskind, Der Einfiuss Schellings auf die Entwicklung von Schleiermachers System (1909): F. Kattenbusch, Von Schleiermacher zu Ritschl (1903); E. Cramaussel, La Philosophie religieuse de Schleiermacher (1909). See also the histories of philosophy and theology by Zeller, Ueberweg, Chalybaus, Dorner, Gass, Lichtenberger (Eng. trans., 1889), Pfleiderer (Eng. trans., 1890), and the articles in Herzog-Hauck's Realencyk. (O. Kirn), and Allgem. deutsche Biog. (W. Dilthey). (J. F. S.; X.)
SCHLEIZ, a town of Germany, second capital of the principality of Reuss, Younger Line, situated in a fertile district on the river Wiesenthal, 20 m. by rail N.W. of Plauen. Pop. (1905) 5 577. It has a palace, with a chapel and a library, three churches, one of them containing the burial vaults of the princes, several educational establishments, and various small industries such as the manufacture of hosiery, toys, sweetmeats and lamps. It has a market for cattle and pigs.
Schleiz was originally a Slav settlement, but received civic privileges in 1359. There was a settlement of the Teutonic Order here, and for some years previous to 1848 the town was the capital of the small principality of Reuss-Schleiz. In the vicinity a battle was fought, on the oth of October 1806, between the French and the Prussians.
See Alberti, Aus vergangenen Tagen des Reussenlandes und der Stadt Schleiz (Schleiz, 1896).
SCHLESWIG (Dan. Slesvig), a. town of Germany; capital of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein. It is situated at the west end of the long narrow arm of the sea called the Schlei, 30 m. to the N.W. of Kiel on the railway from Hamburg to Vamdrup, on the Danish frontier. Pop. (1905) 19,032-The town consists mainly of a. single street, 3% m. long, forming a semicircle round the Schlei, and is divided into the old town (Altstadt), Holm, Lollfuss, and Friedrichsberg. The church of St Peter, erected about 1100 and renewed in the Gothic style in the 15th century, has a lofty Steeple (365 ft.) and contains a very fine carved oak reredos by Hans Bruggemann, which is regarded as the most valuable work of art in Schleswig-Holstein. Between Friedrichsberg and Lollfuss on an island between the Schlei and Burg See is the old chateau of Gottorp, now used as barracks. The former commercial importance of the town has disappeared, and the Schlei now affords access to small vessels only. Fishing, tanning, Hourmilling and brewing are the chief industries.
Schleswig (ancient forms Sliesthorp, Sliaswic, i.e. the town or bay of the Slia. or Schlei) is a town of very remote origin, and seems to have been a. trading place of considerable importance as early as the 9th century. It served as a medium of commercial intercourse between the North Sea and the Baltic, and was known to the Arabian geographers. The first Christian church in this district was built here by Ansgarius (d. 865), and it became the seat of a bishop about a century later. The town, which obtained civic rights in 1200, also became the seat of the dukes of Schleswig, but its commerce gradually dwindled owing to the rivalry of Lübeck, the numerous wars in which the district was involved, and the silting up of the Schlei. At the partition of 1544 the old chateau of Gottorp, originally built in 1160 for the bishop, became the residence of the Gottorp line of the Schleswig-Holstein family, which remained here till expelled by the Danish king Frederick IV. in 1713. From 17 31 to 1846 it was the seat of the Danish governor of the duchies. In the wars of 1848»and 1864 Schleswig was an important strategical point on account of its proximity to the Dannewerk (q.'v.) and was occupied by the different contending parties in turn. It has been the capital of Schleswig-Holstein since its incorporation by Prussia in 1864.
See Sach, Geschichle der Stadt Schleswig (Schleswig, 1875); and jensen, Schleswig und Umgebung (Schleswig, 1905).
SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN', a province in the north-west of Prussia, formed out of the once Danish duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg, and bounded W. by the North Sea, N. by Denmark (]utland), E. by the Baltic Sea, Lübeck and Mecklenburg, and S. by the lower course of the Elbe (separating it from Hanover). It thus consists of the southern half of the Cimbric peninsula, and forms the connecting link between Germany and Denmarkf (For map, see DENMARK.) In addition to the mainland, which decreases in breadth from south to north, the province includes several islands, the most important being Alsen and Fehrnarn in the Baltic, and Rom, Sylt and Fohr of, the North Frisian chain in the North Sea. The total area of the province is 7 3 38 sq. rn., 450 of which belong to the small duchy of Lauenburg in the S.F.. corner, while the rest are divided almost equally between Holstein to the south of the Eider and Schleswig to the north of it. From north to south the province is about 140 m. long, while its breadth varies from Q0 m. in Holstein to 315 m. at the narrower parts of Schleswig. Schleswig- olstein belongs to the great North-German plain, of the characteristic features of which it affords a faithful reproduction in miniature, down to the continuation of the Baltic ridge or plateau by a range of low wooded hills skirting its eastern coast and cu minating in the Bungsberg (538 ft.), a litt e to the north of Eutin. This hi ly district contains the most productive land in the province, the soil consisting of diluvial drift or boulder clay. The central part of the province forms practically a continuation of the great Lüneburg Heath, and its thin sandy soil is of little use for cultivation. Along the west coast extends the “ Marshland, " a belt of rich alluvial soil formed by the deposits of the North Sea, and varying in breadth from 5 to 15 m. It is seldom more than a few feet above the sealevel, while at places it is below it, and it has consequently to be defended by an extensive, system of dykes or embankments resembling those of Holland.
The more ancient geological formations are scarcely met with in Schleswig-Holstein. The contrast between the two coast-lines of the province is marked. The Baltic coast has generally steep well defined banks and is irregular, being pierced by numerous long and narrow inlets (Fiihrden) which often afford excellent harbours. The islands of Alsen and Fehmarn are separated from the coast by narrow channels. The North Sea coast is ow and flat, and its smooth outline is interrupted only by the estuary of the Eider and the peninsula of Eiderstedt. Dunes or sand-hills, though rare on the protected mainland, occur on Sylt and other islands, while the small fiat islands called Halligen are being washed away where not defended by dykes. The numerous islands on the west coast probably formed part of the peninsula at no remote period, and the sea between them and the mainland is shallow and full of sandbanks.
The climate of Schleswig-Holstein is mainly determined by the roximity of the sea, and the mean annual temperature, varying from 45° F. in the north to 49° F. in the south, is rather higher than is usual in the same latitude. Rain and fog are frequent, but the climate is on the whole healthy. The Elbe forms the southern boundary of Holstein for 65 m., but the only river of importance