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University Law School, Washington, D.C., in 1887–1909, and a lecturer on American history and constitutional law at Johns Hopkins University in 1891–1908. In 1896–1897 he was president of the American Historical Association. His legal treatises are The Law of Domestic Relations (1870), The Law of Personal Property (1872–1876; new ed., 1907), The Law of Bailments (1880), The Law of Executors and Administrators (1883), The Law of Husband and Wife (1882) and The Law of Wills (1910). He is best known, however, as an historian; his most important work being a History of the United States under the Constitution, 1789–1865 (6 vols., 1880–1899). Among his other publications are A Life of Thomas Jejerson (1893); Historical Briefs (1896), containing a biography of Mr Schouler; Constitutional Studies, State and Federal (1897); a brief Life of Alexander Hamilton (1901); Americans of 1776 (1906); and Ideals of the Republic (1908).

SCHRADER, EBERHARD (1836–1908), German orientalist, was born at Brunswick on the 7th of January 1836, and educated at Gottingen under Ewald. In 1858 he took a. university prize for a treatise on the Ethiopian languages, and in 1863 became professor of theology at Zürich. Subsequently he occupied chairs at Giessen (1870) and Jena (1873), and finally became professor of oriental languages at Berlin. Though he turned first to biblical research, his chief achievements were in the field of Assyriology, in which he was a pioneer in Germany and acquired an international reputation. He died on the 4th of July 1908.

His publications include: Studien zur Kritik und Erkldrung der biblischen Urgeschichte (1863); the 8th edition of De Wette's Einleitung in das Alte Testament (1869); Die assyr.-babyl. Keilinschriften (1872); Die Keilinschriéten und das Alt. est. (18f72; 3rd ed. by Zimmern and Wine ler, 1901–1902); Keilinschri ten und Geschichtsforschung (1878); Die Höllenfahrt der Istar (text, trans., notes, 1874); Zur Frage nach dem Ursprung der altbabylonischen Kultur (1884); in conjunction with other scholars, Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek (1877).

SCHREIBER, LADY CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH (1812–1895), better known as Lady Charlotte Guest, Welsh scholar and connoisseur of china, daughter of Albemarle Bertie, 9th earl of Lindsey, was born at Uflington House, Lincolnshire, on the 19th of May 1812. She married in 1833 Sir ]osiah John Guest, manager and afterwards owner of the Dowlais ironworks near Merthyr Tydvil. Lady Charlotte Guest studied the Welsh language and literature, and published (3 vols., 1838–1849) The Mabinogion, from the Llyfr Coch o Hergest, and other ancient Welsh M manuscripts, with an English translation and notes. A second edition without the Welsh text appeared in 1877, and in 1881 The Boy's Mabinogion; being the earliest Welsh tales of King Arthur in the famous Red Book of Hergest, edited with an introduction by S. Lanier. Sir Josiah Guest died in 1852, and Lady Charlotte married in 1855 Charles Schreiber, M.P. for Cheltenham and Poole. She made a valuable collection of English porcelain and china, now in the South Kensington Museum, another of fans and fan leaves, presented to the British Museum, and a third of playing cards, part of which is in the British Museum. On all three subjects she left elaborate treatises. She died on the 15th of January 1895 at Canford Manor, Dorset, at the house of her eldest son Ivor Guest, Baron Wimborne.

Editions of Lady Charlotte Guest's translation of the Mabinogion are in The Temple Classics (1902), The Welsh Library (1902), &c.

SCHREIBERHAU, a village and climatic health resort of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, situated in the valley of the Zacken in the Riesengebirge, 1900 ft. above the sea, 16 m. S.W. from Hirschberg by the railway to Griinthal. Pop. (1905) 4994. It has two Roman Catholic and two Evangelical churches, and works for the making and polishing of glass. It is a popular resort, being visited by about 10,000 visitors annually.

See loidt, Schreiberhau im Riesengebirge (Breslau, 1893).

SCHREYER, ADOLF (1828–1899), German painter, was born at Frankfort-on-Main, and studied art first at the Staedel Institute in his native town, and then at Stuttgart, Munich, and Düsseldorf; but he formed his style in Paris, whilst he found his favourite subjects in his travels in the East. He first accompanied Prince Thurn and Taxis through Hungary, Wallachia, Russia and Turkey; then, in 1854, he followed the Austrian army across the Wallachian frontier. In 1856 he went to Egypt and Syria, and in 1861 to Algiers. In 1862 he settled in Paris, but returned to Germany in 1870; and settled at Cronberg near Frankfort, where he died in 1899. Schreyer was, and is still, especially esteemed as a painter of horses, of peasant life in Wallachia and Moldavia, and of battle incidents. His work is remarkable for its excellent equine draughtsmanship, and for the artist's power of observation and forceful statement; and has found particular favour among French and American collectors. Of his battle-pictures there are two at the Schwerin Gallery, and others in the collection of Count Mensdorff-Pouilly and in the Ravené Gallery, Berlin. His painting of a “Charge of Artillery of Imperial Guard” was formerly at the Luxembourg Museum. The Metropolitan Museum, New York, owns three of Schreyer's oriental paintings: “Abandoned,” “Arabs on the March” and “Arabs making a detour”; and many of his best pictures are in the Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, J. J. Astor, W. Astor, A. Belmont, and W. Walters collections. At the Kunsthalle in Hamburg is his “Wallachian Transport Train,” and at the Staedel Institute, Frankfort, are two of his Wallachian scenes.

SCHRIJVER, PETER (1576–1660), Dutch author, better known as Scriverius, was born at Haarlem on the 12th of January 1576. He was educated at the university of Leiden, where he formed a close intimacy with Daniel Heinsius. He belonged to the party of Oldenbarneveldt and Grotius, and brought down the displeasure of the government by a copy of Latin verses in honour of their friend Hoogerbeets. Most of his life was passed in Leiden, but in 1650 he became blind, and the last years of his life were spent in his son’s house at Oudewater, where he died on the 30th of April 1660.

He is best known as a scholar by his notes on Martial, Ausonius, the Pervigilium Veneris; editions of the poems of Scaliger (Leiden, 1615), of the De re militari of Vegetius Renatus, the tragedies of Seneca (P. Scriverii collectanea veterum tragicorum, 1621), &c. His Opera anecdota, philologica, et poëtica (Utrecht, 1738) were edited by A. H. Westerhovius, and his Nederduitsche Gedichten (1738) by S. Dockes. He made many valuable contributions to the history of Holland: Batavia Illustrata (4 parts, Leiden, 1609); Corte historische Beschryvinghe der Nederlandscher Oorlogen (1612); Inferioris Germaniae . . . historia (1611, 4 parts); Beschryvinghe van Out Batavien (Arnheim, 1612); Het oude gontsche Chronycxken van Hollandt, edited by him, and printed at Amsterdam in 1663; Principes Hollandiae Zelandiae et Frisiae (Haarlem, 1650), translated (1678) into Dutch by Pieter Brugman.

See Peerlkamp, Vitae Belgarum qui latina carmina scripserunt (Brussels, 1822), and J. H. Hoeufft, Parnassus latino-belgicus (Amsterdam, 1819).

SCHRÖDER, FRIEDRICH LUDWIG (1744–1816), German actor, manager and dramatist, was born in Schwerin on the 3rd of November 1744. Shortly after his birth, his mother, Sophie Charlotte Schröder (1714–1792), separated from her husband, and joining a theatrical company toured with success in Poland and Russia. Subsequently she married Konrad Ernst Ackermann and appeared with, his company in many German cities, finally settling in Hamburg. Young Schröder early showed considerable talent, but his childhood was rendered so unhappy by his stepfather that he ran away from home and learnt the trade of a shoemaker. He rejoined his parents, however, in 1759, and became an actor. In 1764 he appeared with the Ackermann company in Hamburg, playing leading comedy parts; but these he soon exchanged for the tragic roles in which he became famous. These included Hamlet, Lear and Philip in Schiller's Don Carlos, After Ackermann's death in 1771 Schröder and his mother took over the management of the Hamburg theatre, and he began to write plays-largely adaptations from the English, making his first success with the comedy Die Arglistige. In 1780 he left Hamburg, and after a tour with his wife, Anna Christina Hart, a former pupil, accepted an engagement at the Court theatre in Vienna. In 1785 Schröder again took over his Hamburg management and conducted the theatre with marked ability until his retirement in 1798. The Hamburg theatre again falling into decay, the master was once more summoned to assist in its