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POPULATION]
419
SCOTLAND

have grown to 1,000,000. In 1755, according to the returns furnished by the clergy to the Rev. Dr Alexander Webster (1707-1784), minister of the Tron Kirk, Edinburgh—who had been commissioned by Lord President Dundas to prepare a census for government,—it was 1,265,380. At the first government census (1801) it had reached 1,608,420. The increase at succeeding decades has been continuous though fluctuating in amount, and in 1901 the population amounted to 4,472,103 (females, 2,298,348). In 1902 the Registrar-General for Scotland calculated that if the rate of increase (11.09%) manifest during 1891-1901 were uniformly maintained, the population would double itself in the course of about 66 years.

Table I.Area and Population of Civil Counties in 1891 and 1901.

 Civil Counties.  Area in
Acres.
Population.  Pop. per 
sq. m.
1901.

1891. 1901.





 I. Northern.        
 1. Shetland 352,889  28,711  28,166  51 
 2. Orkney 240,476  30,453  28,699  76 
 3. Caithness 438,878  37,177  33,870  49 
 4. Sutherland 1,297,849  21,896  21,440  11 
 



  2,330,092  118,237  112,175  31 
 



 II. North-Western.        
 5. Ross and Cromarty  1,976,707  78,727  76,450  25 
 6. Inverness 2,695,037  90,121  90,104  21 
 



  4,671,744  168,848  166,554  23 
 



 III. North-Eastern.        
 7. Nairn 103,429  9,155  9,291  57 
 8. Elgin (or Moray) 305,119  43,471  44,890  94 
 9. Banff 403,364  61,684  61,488  98 
10. Aberdeen 1,261,887  284,036  304,439  154 
11. Kincardine 243,974  35,492  40,923  107 
 



  2,317,773  433,838  460,941  127 
 



 IV. East Midland.        
12. Forfar 559,171  277,735  284,082  325 
13. Perth 1,595,774  122,185  123,283  49 
14. Fife 322,844  190,365  218,840  434 
15. Kinross 52,410  6,673  6,981  85 
16. Clackmannan 34,927  33,140  32,029  587 
 



  2,565,126  630,098  665,215  166 
 



 V. West Midland.        
17. Stirling 288,842  118,021  142,291  315 
18. Dumbarton 157,433  98,014  113,865  463 
19. Argyll 1,990,471  74,085  73,642  24 
20. Bute 139,658  18,404  18,787  86 
 



  2,576,404  308,524  348,585  87 
 



 VI. South-Western.        
21. Renfrew 153,332  230,812  268,980  1123 
22. Ayr 724,523  226,386  254,468  225 
23. Lanark 562,821  1,105,899  1,339,327  1523 
 



  1,440,676  1,563,097  1,862,775  827 
 



 VII. South-Eastern.        
24. Linlithgow 76,861  52,808  65,708  547 
25. Edinburgh 234,339  434,276  488,796   1335 
26. Haddington 171,011  37,377  38,665  145 
27. Berwick 292,577  32,290  30,824  67 
28. Peebles 222,599  14,750  15,066  43 
29. Selkirk 170,762  27,712  23,356  88 
 



  1,168,149  599,213  662,415  363 
 



 VIII. Southern.        
30. Roxburgh 426,060  53,500  48,804  73 
31. Dumfries 686,302  74,245  72,571  68 
32. Kirkcudbright 575,565  39,985  39,383  44 
33. Wigtown 311,609  36,062  32,685  67 





 Grand Total 1,999,536  203,792  193,443  62 





  Scotland  19,069,500   4,025,647   4,472,103  150 

In 1901 there were 150 persons to each square mile, and 4.3 acres (excluding inland waters, tidal rivers and foreshore) to each person. The distribution of population is illustrated in the preceding table, which gives the names and areas of the counties and other particulars.

In the northern, north-western and southern divisions the population declined during the decade, the fifteen counties thus affected being, in the order of decrease, beginning with the shire in which it was smallest, Inverness, Banff, Argyll, Kirkcudbright, Shetland, Sutherland, Dumfries, Ross and Cromarty, Clackmannan, Berwick, Orkney, Roxburgh, Caithness, Wigtown and Selkirk. It will thus be seen that the far north and far south alike decreased in population, the decline being largely due to physical conditions, though it need not be supposed that the limit of population was reached in either area. The most sparsely inhabited county was Sutherland, the most densely Lanark. The counties in which there was the largest increase in the decennial period—with Linlithgow first, followed by Lanark, Stirling, Renfrew, Dumbarton and thirteen others—principally belonged to the Central Plain, or Lowlands, in which, broadly stated, industries and manufactures, trade, commerce and agriculture and educational facilities have attained their highest development. In every county the population increased between 1801 and 1841, the increase being more than 10% in each county with the exception of Argyll, Perth and Sutherland. After 1841, however, the population in several Highland shires—in which the clearance of crofters to make way for deer was one of the most strongly-felt grievances among the Celtic part of the people—in the islands, and in some of the southern counties, diminished. The next table affords a comparison of the numbers of the population as grouped in towns, villages and rural districts, and in the mainland and islands.

Table II.Population in Towns, Villages and Rural Districts, Mainland and Islands, 1891 and 1901.

Groups. Population.  Percentage of Pop. in 
each to total Pop.


1891. 1901. 1891. 1901.





 Towns[1] 2,631,298  3,120,241  65.37  69.77 
 Villages[1] 465,836  466,053  11.57  10.42 
 Rural districts  928,513  885,809  23.06  19.81 





Total 4,025,647  4,472,103  100.00  100.00 





 Mainland 3,865,748  4,316,551  96.03  96.52 
 Islands 159,899  155,552  3.97  3.48 





Total  4,025,647   4,472,103   100.00   100.00 

Table III. gives the population of towns with more than 30,000 inhabitants.

Table III.Population in chief Towns in 1881, 1891 and 1901.

Town. 1881. 1891. 1901.




 Glasgow  551,415   565,839 (of enlarged area, 658,198)   760,468 
 Edinburgh 228,357   261,225 (of enlarged area) 316,523 
 Dundee 140,239  153,330  160,878 
 Aberdeen 105,189  121,623  153,503 
 Paisley 55,638  166,425  79,354 
 Leith 59,485  67,700  76,668 
 Govan 50,492  63,625  76,350 
 Greenock 66,704  63,423  67,672 
 Partick 27,410  36,538  54,281 
 Coatbridge 24,812  30,034  36,991 
 Kilmarnock  23,901  28,447  34,165 
 Kirkcaldy 23,632  27,151  34,063 
 Perth 28,980  29,899  32,886 
 Hamilton 18,517  24,859  32,775 
 Motherwell 12,904  18,726  30,418 

The burghs in which the largest proportion of Scottish-born persons lived in 1901 were Kirkcaldy (with 95.997 in every 100 of its inhabitants), Aberdeen (with 94.997), Perth (with 94.442) and Kilmarnock (with 94.046) The largest proportion of English-born were found in Edinburgh (with 5.438%) and Leith (with 4.481). Irish-born were most in evidence in Coatbridge (with 15.158 in every 100), Partick (with 12.05) and Govan (with 11.51). Welsh nationality was most marked in Motherwell (with 0.250%) Those of British-Colonial birth were most numerous in Edinburgh (with 0.933%), and foreigners in Glasgow (with 0.890), Leith (with 0.741) and Hamilton (with 0.720). In addition to the 17,654 resident foreigners there were 4973 foreigners casually in Scotland at the taking of the census in 1901 (1839 men and women on board foreign and British vessels), raising the total of foreigners actually enumerated

  1. 1.0 1.1 Villages have populations of from 300 to 2000; towns from 2000 upwards.