part; and when the Royal Italian Opera was started at Covent Garden, he led the orchestra under Costa, with whom he migrated to Her Majesty's Theatre in 1871. From 1848 to 1855 he was leader of the Queen's Band, and in 1862 he conducted the music at the opening of the International Exhibition. In 1860, he married the famous contralto singer, Miss Charlotte Dolby (see below). He was leader of the principal provincial festivals for many years, and gave a farewell concert at the Albert Hall in 1883. He died on the 17th of October 1890. His method was sound, his style artistic, and his educational work of great value, the majority of the most successful orchestral violinists having been his pupils.
SAINTON-DOLBY, CHARLOTTE HELEN (1821–1885), English contralto singer, was born in London on the 17th of May 11821, studied at the Royal Academy of Music from 1832 to 1837, Crivelli being her principal singing-master. In 1837 she was elected to a king's scholarship, and first appeared at a Philharmonic concert in 1841. In October 1845 she sang at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, through the influence of Mendelssohn, who had been delighted by her singing in St Paul. The contralto music in his Elijah was written for her voice, but she did not appear in that Work till the performance at Exeter Hall on the 16th of April 1847. She married M. Sainton in ISOO, and in 1870 she retired from the career of a public singer, but two years afterwards started a “vocal academy” in London. She made various successful attempts as a composer, and the cantatas “The Legend of St Dorothea” (1876), “The Story of the Faithful Soul "(1879), and “Florimel” (1885), enjoyed considerable success. Her last public appearance was at her husband's farewell concert in June 1883, and she died on the 18th of February 1885. A scholarship in her memory was founded at the Royal Academy of Music. Her voice was of moderate power and of fine quality, but it was her dignified and artistic style that gave her the high place she held for so many years both in oratorio and ballads.
SAINTONGE, one of the old provinces of France, of which Saintes (q.v.) was the capital, was bounded on the N.W. by Aunis, on the N.E. by Poitou, on the E. by Angoumois, on the S. by Guienne, and on the W. by Guienne and the Atlantic. It now forms a small portion of the department of Charente and the greater part of that of Charente Inférieure. In the time of Caesar, Saintonge was occupied by the Santones, whose capital was Mediolanum; afterwards it was part of Aquitania Secunda. The civitas Santonum, which formed the bishopric of Saintes, was divided into two pagi: Santonicus (whence Sanctonia, Saintonge) and Alienensis, later Alniensis (Aunis). Halved by the treaty of 1259, it was wholly ceded to the king of England in 1360, but reconquered by Du Guesclin in 1371. Up to 1789 it was in the same gouvernement with Angoumois, but from a judiciary point of view Saintonge was under the parlement of Bordeaux and Angoumois under that of Paris.
See D. Massiou, Histoire politique, civile et rcligieuse de la Saintonge et de l’Aunis (6 vols., 1836–1839; 2nd ed., 1846); P. D. Rain uet, Biographie saintongeaise (1852). See also the publications of the Société des archives historiques de la Saintonge et de l’Aunis (1874 fol.).
ST OUEN, an industrial town of northern France, in the department of Seine, on the right bank'of the Seine 1 m. N. of the fortifications of Paris. Pop. (1906) 37,673. A chateau of the early 19th century occupies the site of a chateau of the 17th century bought by Madame de Pompadour in 1745, where in 1814 Louis XVIII. signed the declaration promising a constitutional charter to France. Previously there existed a chateau built by Charles of Valois in the early years of the 14th century, where King John the Good inaugurated the short-lived order of the Knights of “Notre Dame de la noble maison,” called also the “ordre de l'étoile.” The industries of St Ouen include metal founding, engineering and machine construction and the manufacture of government uniforms, pianos, chemical products, &c. It has important docks on the Seine and a race-course.
ST PANCRAS, a northern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded E. by Islington, S.E. by Finsbury, S. by Holborn, and W. by St Marylebone and Hampstead, and extending N. to the boundary of the county of London. Pop. (1901) 235,317. In the south it includes a residential district, containing boarding-houses and private hotels. In the centre are Camden Town and Kentish Town, and in the north, where part of Highgate is included, are numerous villas, in the vicinity of Parliament Hill, adjoining Hampstead Heath. A thoroughfare called successively Tottenham Court Road, Hampstead Road, High Street Camden Town, Kentish Town Road, and Highgate Road, runs from south to north; Euston Road crosses it in the south, and Camden Road and Chalk Farm Road branch from it at Camden Town. Besides the greater part of Parliament Hill (267 acres), purchased for the public use in 1886, the borough includes a small part of Regent's Park (mainly in the borough of St Marylebone) and Waterlow Park (29 acres) on the slope of Highgate Hill. It also contains the termini, King's Cross, St Pancras, and Euston, of the Great Northern, Midland, and London and North Western railways, with extensive goods depots of these companies. The parish church of St Pancras in the Fields, near Pancras Road, has lost its ancient character owing Ito reconstruction, though retaining several early monuments. The new church in Euston Road (1822) is a remarkable adaptation of classical models. Among institutions, University College, Gower Street, was founded in 1826, and provides education in all branches common to .universities excepting theology. With the department of medicine is connected the University College Hospital (1833) opposite the College. There are several other hospitals; among them the Royal Free Hospital (Gray's Inn Road), the N orth-west London hospital, Kentish Town, and, in Euston Road, the British (Forbes Winslow memorial) hospital for mental disorders, British hospital for skin diseases, and New hospital for women, administered by female physicians. St Katherine's Hospital, a picturesque building overlooking Regent's Park, with a chapel containing some relics of antiquity, was settled here (1825) on the formation of the St Katherine's Docks near the Tower of London, where it was founded by Queen Matilda in 1148. Its patronage has always been associated with queens, and here was established the Queen Victoria Home for Nurses of the poor, founded out of the women's gift of money to the Queen at her jubilee (1887). Other institutions are the London School of Medicine for women, the Royal Veterinary College and the Aldenham technical institute. The Passmore Edwards Settlement, taking name from its principal benefactor, was founded largely through the instrumentality of Mrs Humphry Ward. Near Regent's Park is Cumberland Market. The parliamentary borough of St Pancras has north, south, east and west divisions, each returning one member. The borough council consists of a mayor, 10 aldermen and 60 councillors. Area, 2694.4 acres.
St Pancras is mentioned in Domesday as belonging to the chapter of St Paul's Cathedral, in which body the lordship of the manors of Cantelows (Kentish Town) and Totenhall (Tottenham Court) was also invested. Camden Town takes name from Baron Camden (d. 1794), lord chancellor under George III. King's Cross was so called from a statue of George IV., erected in 1830, greatly ridiculed and removed in 1845, but an earlier name, Battle Bridge, is traditionally derived from the stand of Queen Boadicea against the Romans, or from one of Alfred's contests with the Danes. Somers Town, between King's Cross and Camden Town, was formerly inhabited by refugees from the French Revolution, many of whom were buried in St Pancras churchyard. In the locality of Somers Town there were formerly to be traced earthworks of unknown age, which William Stukeley argued had belonged to a Roman camp of Julius Caesar. Attached to the former manor-house of Totenhall was one of the famous pleasure resorts of the 17th and 18th centuries, and from c. 1760 to the middle of the 19th century the gardens at Bagnigge Wells (King's Cross Road) were greatly favoured; there were here, moreover, medicinal springs.
ST PAUL, a volcanic island in the southern Indian Ocean, in 38° 42′ 50″ S., 77° 32′ 29″ E., 60 m. S. of Amsterdam Island, belonging to France. The two islands belong to two separate eruptive areas characterized by quite different products; and the comparative bareness of St Paul contrasts with the dense vegetation of Amsterdam. On the north-east of St Paul, which has an area of 23 sq. m., is a land-locked bay, representing the old crater, with its rim broken down on one side by the sea.