and cantatas: "Oratorio de Noël,” “Les Noces de Prométhée," Psalm “Coeli enarrant," “ Le Deluge," “La Lyre et la harpe”; three symphonies; four symphonic poems (“Le Rouet d'Omphale,” “Phaéton," “Danse Macabre,” “La Jeunesse d'Hercule"); five pianoforte concertos; three violin concertos; two suites, marches, and other works for orchestra; the ballet Zavotte; music to the drama Déjanire, given at the open-air theatre of Béziers; a quintet for piano and strings, a quartet for piano and strings, two trios for piano and strings, a string quartet, a septet, violoncello sonata, two violin sonatas; a Mass, a Requiem, besides a quantity of piano and organ music, and many songs, duets and choruses. He also published three books, entitled Harmonie et mélodie, Portraits et souvenirs, and Problemes et mystères, besides a volume of poems, Rimes familieres. The honorary degree of Doctor of Music was conferred upon him by Cambridge University in 1893.
SAINTSBURY, GEORGE EDWARD BATEMAN (1845–), English man of letters, was born at Southampton on the 23rd of October 1845. He was educated at King's College School, London, and at Merton College, Oxford (B.A., 1868), and spent six years in Guernsey as senior classical master of Elizabeth College. From 1874 to 1876 he was headmaster of the Elgin Educational Institute. He began his literary career in 1875 as a critic for the Academy, and for ten years was actively engaged in journalism, becoming an important member of the staff of the Saturday Review. Some of the critical essays contributed to the literary journals were afterwards collected in his Essays in English Literature, 1780–1860 (2 vols., 1890–1895), Essays on French Novelists (1891), Miscellaneous Essays (1892), Corrected Impressions (1895). His first book, A Primer of French Literature (1880), and his Short History of French Literature (1882; 6th ed., Oxford, 1901), were followed by a series of editions of French classics and of books and articles on the history of French literature, which made him the most prominent English authority on the subject. His studies in English literature were no less comprehensive, and included the valuable revision of Sir Walter Scott's edition of Dryden's Works (Edinburgh, 18 vols., 1882-1893), Dryden (1881) in the “ English Men of Letters ” series, History of Elizabethan Literature (1887), History of Nineteenth Century Literature (1896), A Short History of English Literature (1898, 3rd ed. 1903), an edition of the Minor Caroline Poets of the Caroline Period (2 vols., 1905–1906), a collection of rare poems of great value, and editions of English classics. He edited the series of “ Periods of European Literature,” contributing the volumes on The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of Allegory (1897), and The Earlier Renaissance (1901). In 1895 he became professor of rhetoric and English literature at Edinburgh university, and subsequently produced two of his most important works, A History of Criticism (3 vols., 1900–1904), with the companion volume Loci Critici, Passages Illustrative of Critical Theory and Practice (Boston, U.S.A., and London, 1903), and A History of English Prosody from the 12th Century to the Present Day (i., 1906; ii., 1908; iii., 1910); also The Later Nineteenth Century (1909).
ST SERVAN, a town of western France, in the department of Ille-et-Vilaine, on the right bank of the Rance, south of St Malo, from which it is separated by the Anse des Sablons, a creek 1 m. wide (see St Malo). Pop. (1906) 9765. It is not enclosed by walls, and with its new houses, straight wide streets and numerous gardens forms a contrast to its neighbour. North of the town there is a wet-dock, 27 acres in extent, forming part of the harbour of St Malo. The creek on which it opens is dry at low water, but at high water is 30 to 40 ft. deep. The dock is used chiefly by coasting and fishing vessels, a fleet starting annually for the Newfoundland cod-fisheries. Two other ports on the Rance, south-west of the town at the foot of the tower of Solidor, are of small importance. This stronghold, erected towards the close of the 14th century by John IV., duke of Brittany, for the purpose of contesting the claims to the temporal sovereignty of the town of Josselin de Rohan, bishop of St Malo, consists of three distinct towers formed into a triangle by loop-holed and machicolated curtains. To the west St Servan terminates in a peninsula on which stands the “ cité,” inhabited by work-people, and the “ fort de la cité ”; near by is a modern chapel which has replaced the cathedral of St Peter of Aleth, the seat of a bishopric from the 6th tovthe 12th century. The parish church is modern (1742–1842). St Servan has a communal college. It carries on steam-sawing, boat-building, rope-making and the manufacture of ship's biscuits. .
The “ Cité ” occupies the site of the city of Aleth, which at the close of the Roman empire supplanted Corseul as the capital of the Curiosolites. Aleth was a bulwark of Druidism in those regions and was not Christianized till the 6th century, when St Malo became its first bishop. On the removal of the bishopric to St Malo Aleth declined and was almost destroyed by St Louis in 1235; the houses that remained standing became the nucleus of a new community, originating from St Malo, which placed itself under the patronage of St Servan, apostle of the Orkneys. It was not till the Revolution that St Servan became a separate commune from St Malo with a municipality and police of its own.
ST SEVER, a town of south-western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Landes, 11 m. S.S.W. of Mont de Marsan on the Southern railway between that town and Bayonne. Pop. (1906) town, 2508; commune, 4644. St Sever stands on an eminence on the left bank of the Adour in the district of the Chalosse. Its streets, bordered in places by old houses, are narrow and winding. The promenade of Morlanne laid out on the site of a Roman camp called Palestrion commands a fine view of the Adour and the pine forests of the Landes. The church of St Sever, a Romanesque building of the 12th century, with seven apses, once belonged to the Benedictine abbey founded in the 10th century. The public institutions of the town include the sub-prefecture, a tribunal of first instance, and a practical school of agriculture and viticulture which occupies a former Dominican convent. There is trade in the agricultural products of the Chalosse, especially geese.
SAINT-SIMON, CLAUDE DE ROUVROY, Duc de (1607-1693), French courtier, was born in August 1607, being the second son of Louis de Rouvroi, seigneur du Plessis (d. 1643), who had been a Warm supporter of Henry of Guise and the League. With his elder brother he entered the service of Louis XIII. as a page and found instant favour with the king. Named first equerry in March 1627 he became in less than three years captain of the chateaux of St Germain and Versailles, master of the hounds, first gentleman of the bed-chamber, royal councillor and governor of Meulan and of Blaye. On the fall of La Rochelle he received lands in the vicinity valued at 80,000 livres. About three years later his seignior of Saint-Simon in Vermandois was erected into a duchy, and he was created a peer of France. He was at first on good terms with Richelieu and was of service on the Day of Dupes (11th of November 1630). Having suffered disgrace for taking the part of his uncle, the baron of Saint-Léger, after the capture of Catelet (15th of August 1636), he retired to Blaye. He fought in the campaigns of 1638 and 1639, and after the death of Richelieu returned to court, where he was coldly received by the king (18th of February 1643). Thenceforth, with the exception of siding with Condé during the Fronde, he took small part in politics. He died in Paris on the 3rd of May 1693. By his first wife, Diane de Budos de Portes, a relative of Condé, whom he married in 1644 and who died in 1670, he had three daughters. By his second wife, Charlotte de l'Aubespine, whom he married in 1672, he had a son Louis, the “author of the memoirs” (see below).
SAINT-SIMON, CLAUDE HENRI DE ROUVROY, Comte de (1760-1825), the founder of French socialism, was born in Paris on the 17th of October 1760. He belonged to a younger branch of the family of the duc de Saint-Simon (above). His education was directed by D'Alembert. At the age of nineteen he assisted the American colonies in their revolt against Britain. From his youth Saint-Simon felt the promptings of an eager ambition. His valet had orders to awake him every morning with the words, “ Remember, monsieur le comte, that you have great things to do.” Among his early schemes was one to unite the Atlantic and the Pacific by a canal, and another to construct a canal from Madrid to the sea. Although he was imprisoned in the Luxembourg during the Terror, he took no part of any importance in the Revolution, but profited by it to amass a little fortune by land speculation-not on any selfish account, however, as he said, but to facilitate his future projects.