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ST THOMAS

and sketches of incident are adapted and sometimes almost literally translated from Saint-Simon.

The first edition of Saint-Simon (some scattered pieces may have been printed before) appeared in 1788. It was a mere selection in three volumes and was much cut down before it was allowed to appear. Next year four more volumes made their appearance, and in 1791 a new edition, still' further increased. The whole, or rather not the whole, was printed in 1829–1830 and reprinted some ten years later. The real creator of Saint-Simon, as far as a full and exact text is concerned, was M. Chéruel, whose edition in 20 volumes dates from 1856, and was reissued again revised in 1872. So immense, however, is the mass of Saint-Simon's MSS. that still another recension was given by M. de Boislisle in 1882, with M. Chéruel's assistance, while a newer edition, yet once more revised from the MS., was begun in 1904. It must, however, be admitted that the matter other than the 'Memoirs is of altogether inferior interest and may be pretty safely neglected by any one but professed antiquarian and historical students. For criticism on Saint-Simon there is nothing better than Sainte-Beuve's two sketches in the 3rd and 15th volumes of the Causeries du lundi. The latter was written to accompany M. Chéruel's first edition. In English by far the most accurate treatment is in a Lothian prize essay by E. Cannan (Oxford and London, 1885).  (G. Sa.) 


ST THOMAS, an incorporated city and port of entry of Ontario, Canada, capital of Elgin county, on Kettle creek, 13 m. S. of London and 8 m. N. of Lake Erie. Pop. (1901) 11,485. It is an important station on the Grand Trunk, Michigan Central, Lake Erie & Detroit River, and Canadian Pacific railways. It has numerous schools, a collegiate institute, and Alma ladies college. The Michigan Central railway shops, car-wheel foundry, fiour, fiax and planing mills are the principal industries.


ST THOMAS (SAO THOME), a volcanic island in the Gulf of Guinea immediately north of the equator (o° 23' N.) and in 6° 40' E. With the island of Principe (Prince's Island), it forms the Portuguese province of St Thomas. From the Gabun, the nearest point of the mainland of Africa, St Thomas is distant 166 m., and from Cameroon 297 m. The extreme length of the island is 32 m. the breadth W. to E. 21 rn.; the area is about 400 sq. m.

From the coast the land rises towards lofty verdant mountains (St Thomas over 7000 ft.). At least a hundred streams, great and small, descend the mountain-sides through deep-cut ravines, many of them forming beautiful waterfalls, such as those of Blu-blu on the Agua Grande. The island during its occupation by the Netherlands acquired the name of “ The Dutchman's Church ard, " and the death fate is still very high. Malaria is common in the lower regions, but the unhealthiness of the island is largely due to the absence of hygienic precautions. During the dry season (June to September) the temperature ranges in the lower parts between 66~2° and 8o~6° F., and in the higher parts between § 7'2° and 68°; in the rainy season it ranges between 69-8° and 89-6 in the lower parts, and between 64-4° and 8o~6° in the higher parts. On Coffee Mount (2265 ft.) the mean of ten years was 68-9°, the maximum 90- 5° and the minimum 47-3°. The heat is tempered by the equatorial ocean current. The rainfall is very heavy save on the north coast. The-soil is exceedingly fertile and a considerable area is densely forested. Among the products are oranges, lemons, figs, mangoes, and in the lower districts the vine, pineapple, guava and banana. The first ob'ect of European cultivation was sugar, and to this the island owed' its prosperity in the 16th century; sugar has been displaced by coffee and, principally, cocoa, introduced in 1795 and 1822 res ctively. In 1907 the export of cocoa (including that from Principegewas over 24,000 tons, about a sixth of the world's supply. The cocoa zone lies between 650 and 2000 ft. above the sea. Vanilla and cinchona bark both succeed well, the latter at altitudes of from 1800 to 3300 ft. Rubber, quinine, cinnamon, camphor and the kola-nut are also produced, but since 1890-when the production was under 3000 tons-cocoa has been almost exclusively grown. About 175 sq. m. were in 1910 under cultivation. The value of the imports was £175,000 in 1896 and £708,000 in 1908; that of the exports was £398,000 in 1896 and £I,760,000 in 1908. The shipping trade (190 vessels of 490,000 tons in 1908) is chiefly in the hands of the Portuguese. The revenue (1909-1910) was about £195,000, the expenditure £162, o00.

At the census of 1900 the inhabitants were returned at 37,776, of whom 1012 were whites (mainly Portuguese). The town of St Thomas, capital and chief port of the province, residence of the governor and of the Curador (the legal guardian of the senvigaes, i.e. labourers), is situated on Chaves Bay on the N.E. coast. It is the starting-point of a railway 9 m. long, which connects with the l)ecauville railways on the cocoa estates. The inhabitants a art from the Europeans, consist (1) of descendants of the original settlers, who were convicts from Portugal, slaves and others from Brazil and negroes from the Gabun and other parts of the Guinea coast. They number about 8000, are a brown-skinned, indolent race, and occupy rather than cultivate about one-eighth of the island. They are known as “ natives ” and use a Negro-Portuguese “ lingua de S Thomé." (2) On the south-west coast are Angolares-some 3000 in number-descendants of two hundred Angola slaves wrecked at Sete Pedras in 1544. They retain their Bunda speech and customs, and are expert fishermen and canoemen. (3) Contract labourers from Cape Verde, Kabinda, &c., and Angola. These form the bulk of the population. In 1891, before the great development of the cocoa industry, the population was only 22,000.1

St Thomas was discovered on the 21st of December 1470 by the Portuguese navigators Joao de Santarem and Pero de Escobar, who in the beginning of the following year discovered Annobom (“ Good Year ”). They found St Thomas uninhabited. The first attempts at colonization were Ioao de Paiva's in 1485; but nothing permanent was accomplished till 1493, when a body of criminals and of young Jews taken from their parents to be baptized were sent to the island, and the present capital was founded by Alvaro de Carminha. In the middle of the 16th century there were over 80 sugar mills on the island, which then had a population of 50,000; but in 1567 the settlement was attacked by the French, and in 1574 the Angolares began raids which only ended with their subjugation in 1693. In 1 S9 5 there was a slave revolt; and from 1641 to 1644 the Dutch, who had plundered the capital in 1600, held possession of the island. The French did great damage in 1709; the sugar trade had passed to Brazil and internal anarchy reduced St Thomas to a deplorable state. It was not until the later half of the 19th century that prosperity began to return. The greatly increased demand for cocoa which arose in the last decade of the century led to the establishment of many additional plantations, and a very profitable industry was developed. Planters, however, were handicapped by the scarcity of labour, for though a number of Cape Verde islanders, Krumen and Kabindas sought employment on short-term agreements, the “ natives ” would not work. The diflicultywas met by the recruitment of indentured natives from Angola, as many as 6000 being brought over in one year. The mortality among these labourers was great, but they were very well treated on the plantations. No provision was, however, made for their repatriation, while the great majority were brought by force from remote parts of Central Africa and had no idea of the character of the agreement into which they were compelled to enter. From time to time governors of Angola endeavoured to remedy the abuses of the system, which both in Portugal and Great Britain was denounced as indistinguishable from slavery, notwithstanding that slavery had been legally abolished in the Portuguese dominions in 1878. In March 1909 certain irms, British and German, as the result of investigations made in Angola and St Thomas, refused any longer to import cocoa from St Thomas or Principe Islands unless the recruitment of labourers for the plantations was made voluntary. Representations to Portugal were made by the British government, and the Lisbon authorities stopped recruitment entirely from July 1909 to February 1910, when it was resumed under new regulations. British consular agents were stationed in Angola and St Thomas to watch the working of these regulations. (See statement by Sir E. Grey reported in The Times, July 2nd, 1910). As one means of obviating the difficulties encountered in Angola the recruitment of labourers from Mozambique was begun in 1908, the men going out on a yearly contract.

BRINCIPE ISLAND lies go m. N.E. of St Thomas, has an area of 42 sq. m. and is also of volcanic origin. Pop. (1900) 4327. The tsetse iiy (which is not found in St Thomas) infests the wooded part of the island, and through it sleeping sickness has been spread among the inhabitants. The principal industry is the cultivation of cocoa. The chief settlement is St Antonio.

See A. Negreiros, Historia ethnographic da' Ilha de S Thomé (Lisbon, 1895) and flc de San Thomé (Paris, 1901); C. Gravier “ Mission scientifique a l'ile de San Thomé ” Nouv. Arch. Miss. Scient. t. xv. (Paris, 1907); A. Pinto de Miranda Guedes, “ Viagao em S Thomé" in B.S.G. Lisboa (1902) pp. 299-357; E. de Campos

According to Aug. Chevalier (in O. Occidenle, May 20th, 1910) the population of St Thomas and Principe combined in Dec. 1909 was 68,221, the “ natives " being given at over 23,000.