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acts to the repeal of which the regent may not assent. To maintain or affirm the right of any person to the crown, contrary to the provisions of the act, is high treason by an act of 1707.

See T. P. Taswell-Langmead's English Const. Hist. (1905); H. Hallam, Constitutional History, vol. iii. (1855); and L. von Ranke, Englische Geschichte (1859–1868).

SETUBAL (formerly called in English St Ubes and in French St Yves), a seaport of Portugal, in the district of Lisbon (formerly included in the province of Estremadura), 18 m. S.E. of Lisbon by the Barreiro-Pinhal Novo-Setubal railway. Pop. (1900) 22,074. Setubal is built on the north shore of a deep estuary, formed by the rivers Sado, Marateca and São Martinho, which discharge their waters into the Bay of Setubal 3 m. below the city. Setubal is overtopped on the west by the treeless red heights of the Serra da Arrabida. There are five forts for the defence of the harbour; the castle of St Philip, built by Philip III. of Spain (1578–1621), commands the city. Setubal is the third seaport and fourth largest city of Portugal. It exports large quantities of fine salt, oranges and muscatel grapes; it has many sardine-curing and boat-building establishments, and manufactures of fish-manure and lace. Its port is officially included in that of Lisbon. Under John II. (1481–1495) Setubal was a favourite royal residence, and one of the churches dates from this period; but most of the ancient buildings were destroyed by the great earthquake of 1755. There are some fine public buildings, statues and fountains of later date, including a statue of the poet M. M. de B. du Bocage (1766–1806), who was a native of Setubal. In the sand hills of a low-lying promontory in the bay opposite Setubal are the so-called ruins of “ Troia,” uncovered in part by heavy rains in 1814 and excavated in 1850 by an antiquarian society. These ruins of “ Troia," among which have been brought to view a beautiful Roman house and some 1600 Roman coins, are those of Cetobriga, which flourished A.D. 300–400. In the neighbourhood, on a mountain 1600 ft. high, is the monastery of Arrabida.

SEUME, JOHANN GOTTFRIED (1763-1810), German author, was born at Poserna, near Weissenfels, on the 29th of January 1763. He was educated, first at Borna, then at the Nikolai school and university of Leipzig. The study of Shaftesbury and Bolingbroke weakened his interest in theology, and, breaking off his studies, he set out for Paris. On the way he was seized by Hessian recruiting officers and sold to England, whereupon he was drafted to Canada.. After his return in 1783 he deserted at Bremen, but was captured and brought to Emden; a second attempt at flight also failed. In 1787, however, a citizen of Emden became surety for him to the amount of 80 talers, and he was allowed to visit his home. He did not return, but paid off his debt in Emden with the remuneration he received for translating an English novel. He taught languages for a time in Leipzig, and became tutor to a Graf Igelstrom, whom, in 1792, he accompanied to Warsaw. Here he became secretary to General von Igelstrom, and, as a. Russian officer, experienced the terrors of the Polish insurrection. In 1796 he was again in Leipzig and, resigning his Russian commission, entered the employment of the publisher Goschen. In December 1801 he set out on his famous nine months' walk to Sicily, described in his Spaziergang nach Syrakus (1803). Some years later he visited Russia, Finland and Sweden, a journey which is described in Mein Sommer im Jahr 1805 (1807). His health now beganto fail, and he died on the 1 3th of ]'une 1810, at Teplitz. His reputation rests on the two books just mentioned, to which may be added his autobiography, Mein Leben (1813, continued by C. A. H. Clodius). These works reflect Seume's sterling character and sturdy patriotism; his style is clear and straightforward; his descriptions realistic and vivid. As a dramatist (M iltiades, 1808), and as a lyric poet (Gediehte, 1801), he had but little success.

Seume's Gesammelte Schriften were first edited b ]. P. Zimmermann (182 3-1 826); his Sdmtliche Werke (1826-1827), passed through seven editions. The most recent edition is ]. G. Seume's Prosaisehe und poetisehe Werke (10 vols., 1879). See O. Planer and C. Reissmann, J. G. Seume. Geschiehte seine: Lebens und seiner Schriften (1898).

SEVASTOPOL, or SEBASTOPOL, an important naval station of Russia on the Black Sea, on the S.W. coast of the Crimea, in 44° 37' N. and 33° 31' E., 956 m. from Moscow, with which it is connected by rail via Kharkov. Pop. (1882) 26,150; (1897) 50,710. The estuary, which is one of the best road steads in Europe and could accommodate the combined fleets of Europe, is a deep and thoroughly sheltered indentation among chalky cliffs, running east and west for nearly 4 m., with a width of three quarters of a mile, narrowing to 930 yds. at the entrance. It has a depth of 6 to 10 fathoms, with a good bottom, and large ships can anchor at a cable's length from the shore. ' The main inlet has also four smaller indentations-Quarantine Bay at its entrance, Yuzhnaya (Southern) Bay, which penetrates more than 1 m. to the south, with a depth of 4 to 9fa.lll1O1115, Dockyard Bay and Artillery Bay. A small river, the Chornaya, enters the head of the inlet. The main part of the town, with an elevation of 30 to 190 ft., stands on the southern shore of the chief inlet, between Yuzhnaya and Artillery Bays. A few buildings on the other shore of the chief bay constitute the “northern side.” Before the Crimean War of 1853-56 Sevastopol was a well built city, beautified by gardens, and had 43,000 inhabitants; but at'the end of the siege it had not more than fourteen buildings which had not been badly injured. After the war many privileges were granted by the government in order to attract population and trade; but both increased slowly, and at the end of seven years the population numbered only 5750. .

The present town is well built and is becoming a favourite watering-place on account of its sea-bathing and numerous sanatoria. It has a zoological marine station (1897), a museum commemorative of the siege (189 5), a cathedral of Classical design and another finished in 1888, monuments of Admirals Nakhimov (1898) and Kornilov (1895) and of General Todleben, and two navigation schools. In 1890 Sevastopol was made a third-class fortress, and the commercial port has been transferred to Theodosia.

The peninsula between the Bay of Sevastopol and the Black Sea. was known in the 7th century as the Heracleotic Chersonese. In the 5th century B.c. a Greek colony was founded here and remained independent for three centuries, when it became part of the kingdom of the Bosporus, and subsequently tributary to Rome. Under the Byzantine empire Chersonesus was an administrative centre for its possessions in Taurida. Vladimir, prince of Kiev, conquered Chersonesus (Korsun) before being baptized there, and restored it to the Greeks on marrying (988) the princess Anna. Subsequently the Slavs were cutoff from relations with Taurida by the Mongols, and only made occasional raids, such as that of the Lithuanian prince Olgierd. In the 16th century a new influx of colonists, the Tatars, occupied Chersonesus and founded a settlement named Akhtyar. This village, after the Russian conquest in 1783, was selected for the chief naval station of the empire in the Black Sea and received its present name (“ the August City ”). In 1826 strong fortifications were begun. In 1854 the allied English, French and Turkish forces laid siege to the southern portion of the town, and on the 17th of October began a heavy bombardment. Sevastopol sustained a memorable eleven months' siege, and on the 8th of September 1855 was evacuated by the Russians. The fortifications were blown up by the allies, and by the Paris treaty, the Russians were bound not to restore them (see CRIMEAN WA.R)¢ In November 1870, during the Franco-German War, the Russian government decided again to make Sevastopol a naval arsenal.

SEVEN CHAMPIONS OF CHRISTENDOM, the name given-in medieval tales to the seven national saints-of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, France, Spain and Italy—i.e. Saints George, Andrew, Patrick, David, Denis, James and Anthony.) The classical version of their achievements is that of Richard Johnson (1573-c. 1659), Famous Historie of the Seaven Champians of Christendom (3 parts, 1596, 1608, 1610: many editions). The oldest known copy is dated 1597; there is also a poetical version by Sir George Buc (published 1623).

SEVEN DAYS' BATTLE, a name given to aseries of combats in the neighbourhood of Richmond, Virginia, during the American Civil War, June 26- July 2, 1862. The Federal Army of the Potomac, advancing from the sea and the river Parnunkey