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SHAW-KENNEDY—SHAWNEE

angle turrets are most happily conceived, and besides giving emphasis to the corners, form the main point of interest in the composition of the riverfront. The chimneys are not allowed to cut the sky-line in all directions, but have been drawn together into massive blocks, and contribute much to the general air of dignity and strength forwhich this building is remarkable. Simple roofs of ample span com lete a composition conspicuous for its breadth and unity.

Mr. ShaW's influence on his generation can only be adequately gauged by a comparison of current work with that which was in vogue when he began his career. The works of Pugin, Scott, and others, and the architectural literature of the time, had turned the thoughts both of architects and the public towards a “ revived Gothic.” Before he entered the field, this teaching had hardened into a creed. Mr Shaw was not content to hold so limited a view, and with characteristic courage threw over these artificial barriers and struck out a line of his own. The rapidity with which he conceived and created new types, and as it were set a new fashion in' building, compelled admiration for his genius, and swelled the ranks of his adherents. It is largely owing to him that there is now a distinct tendency to approach architecture as the art of Building rather than as the art of'Designing, and the study of old work as one of methods and expressions which are for all time, rather than as a means of learning a language of forms proper only to their period.


SHAW-KENNEDY, SIR JAMES (1788-1865), British soldier and military writer, was the son of Captain John Shaw, of Dalton, Kirkcudbrightshire. Joining the 43rd (Monmouthshire) Light Infantry in I8O 5, he first saw service in the Copenhagen Expedi¢ tion of 1807 as a lieutenant, and under Sir David Baird took part in the Corunna Campaign of 1808-9. In the retreat Shaw contracted a fever, from the effects of which he never fully recovered. The 43rd was again engaged in the Douro and Talavera Campaigns, and Shaw became adjutant of his now famous regiment at the battle of Talavera. As Robert Craufurd's aide-de-camp he was on the staif of the Light Division at the Coa and the Agueda, and with another officer prepared and edited the “ Standing Orders of the Light Division ” (printed in Home's Préois of M odern Tactics, pp. 2 57-277), which serve as a model to 'this day. He was wounded at Almeida in 1810, but rejoined Craufurd at the end of 181 1 and was with his chief at the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo in January 1812. At the great assault of January 19th Shaw carried his general, mortally wounded, from the glacis, and at Badajoz, now once more with the 43rd, he displayed, at the lesser breach, a. gallantry which furnished his brother officer William Napier with the theme of one of his most glorious descriptive passages (Peninsular War, bk. xvi. ch. ~v.). At the siege and the battle of Salamanca, in the retreat from Burgos, Shaw, still a subaltern, distinguished himself again and again, but he had to return to England at the end of the year, broken in health. Once more in active service in 12815, as one of Charles Alten's staff oihcers, Captain Shaw, by his reconnoitring skill and tactical judgment was of the greatest assistance to Alten and to Wellington, who promoted him brevet-major in July, and brevet lieut.-colonel in 1819. During the occupation of France by the allied army Shaw was commandant of Calais, and on his return to England was employed as a staff officer in the North. In this capacity he was called upon to deal with the Manchester riots of 1819, and his memorandum on the methods to be adopted in dealing with civil disorders embodied principles which, have been recognized to the present day. In 1820 he married, and in 1834, on succeeding, in right of his Wife, to the estate of Kirkmichael, he took the name of Kennedy. Two years later Colonel Shaw-Kennedy was entrusted with the organization of the Royal Irish Constabulary, which he raised and trained according to his own ideas. He remained inspector-general of the R.I.C. for two years, after which for ten years he led a retired country life. In ' 1848, during the Chartist movements, he was suddenly called upon tocomrnand at Liverpool, and soon afterwards was oiered' successively a command in Ireland and the governorship of Mauritius. Ill-health compelled him to decline these, as also the Scottish Command a little later, and for the rest of his life he was practically an invalid; He became full General in 1862 and' was made K.C.B. a year later. In 1859, at the time of the Orsini case, he published a remarkable essay on The Defence cf Gnd# Britain and Ireland, and in 1865 appeared his famous Notes on Waterloo, appended to which is a Plan for the defence of Canada. He died the same year. V

See the autobiographical notice in Notes on Waterloo, also the regimental history of the 43rd and Napier, passim.


SHAWL, a square or oblong article of dress worn in various ways dependent from the shoulders. The term is of Persian origin (shdl), and the article itself is most 'characteristic of the natives of N.W. India and Central Asia; but in various forms, and under different names, the same piece of clothing is 'found in most parts of the world. The shawls made in Kashmir occupy a pre-eminent place among textile products; and it is to them and to their imitations from Western looms that specific imports ance attaches. The Kashmir shawl is characterized, by the elaboration of its design, in which the “ cone” pattern is a prominent feature, and by the glowing harmony, brilliance, depth, and enduring qualities of its colours. The basis of these excellence's is found in the very fine, soft, short, flossy under-wool, called pashm or pashmina, found on the shawl-goat, a variety of Capra hircus inhabiting the elevated regions of Tibet. There are several varieties of pashm, but the finest is a strict monopoly of the maharaja of Kashmir., Inferior pashm and Kirman woola line soft Persian sheep's' wool—are used for shawl weaving at Amritsar and other places in the Punjab, where colonies of Kashmiri Weavers are established. Of shawls, apart from 'shape and pattern, there arefonly two principal classes: (1) loom woven shawls called tiliwalla, tilikar or kani kar-sometimes woven in one piece, but more often in small segments which are sewn together with such precision that the sewing is quite imperceptible; and (2) embroidered shawlseamlikar-in which over a ground of plain pashmina is worked by needle a minute and elaborate pattern.,


SHAWM, SHALM (Fr. chalumeait, clzalemelle, hautbois; (Get. Schalmei, Schalmey; Ital. Pifar ipenamelley Lat. ealamus; tibia; Gr. ablkbs), the medieval forerunner of the oboe, the treble members of the large family of reed instruments knownyin Germany as the Pommef (q.'v.), Bombart or Sohalmey family. Michael Praetorius, at the beginning of the 17th century, enumerates the members of this family (see, OBoE); the two, of highest pitch are Schalmeys, the first or little Schalmey;being in, Bb (third line) or A, and 'the second, also called cantus or discant, in E or D below. The shawm or Schalmey had a compass. of two octaves, the second diatonic octave being obtained by over blowing each of the notes of the first octave an octave higher; the chromatic semitones were produced by half stopping the holes and by cross-fingering. In some instances the reed mouthpiece was half enclosed in a pirouette, a small case “having a slit through which that part of the reed which is taken into the mouth of the player was alone exposed, the edges of the slit thus forming a rest for his lips. 7 7

In the miniatures of the illuminated MSS. of all countries, more especially from the 14th century, and in early printed books, Schalmeys and Pommers are represented in every conceivable phase of social life in which music takes a part. (K. S.)


SHAWNEE or SHAWANO (said to .mean “ southerner ”), a tribe of North American Indians of -Algonquian stock. They are said to have been first found in Wisconsin. Under the name Sacannahs towards the end of the 17th century they. had -their headquarters in South Carolina on the upper Savannah. Moving eastward they came in Contact with the Iroquois, by whom they were driven S. again into Tennessee. Thence they crossed the mountains into South Carolina and again spread northward as far as New York state and southward to Florida. Subsequently they recrossed the Alleghany mountains, once more came in contact with the Iroquois and~ were driven into Ohio. A They joined in Pontiac's conspiracy. They fought on the English Side in the War of Independence and again in ISIZS under Tecumseh. They are now on a reservation in Oklahoma.


SHAWNEE, a city of Pottawatomie county, Oklahoma, U.S.A., on the North Fork of the Canadian river, about 38 rn. E.S.E. of Oklahoma city. Pop. (1907) IO, Q55, ~lI'1Clu(ll1'lg 748 negroes and 20 Indians; (1910) 12,474f Shawnee is served by the Atchison, Topeka, & Santa Fe, the Chicago, .Rock Island;& Pa.ciiic, ,'a1id.the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways and by interurban electric