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longer and heavier than in the ships of the “ Majestic ” class, and were in barrettes 12 in. thick; in addition, there were twelve 6-in. Q.F. guns-all in case mates-j-sixteen I2-pdrs. and four torpedo tubes. These eight battleships were each provided with 20 Belleville boilers, developed 15,000 H.P., and had a speed of 18 knots. They carried 900 tons of coal at their normal displacement, boilers; 'they had 20 Bellevilles, developed 13,500 H.P., and had a speed of 181- knots. They carrie 1000 tons of coal at normal load, and had bunkers for 2300 tons. T he ships of the “ Duncan ” class were longer and larger than those of the “ anopus ” class. They were begun in July 1899, were of 14,000 tons disin. beam, 26 ft. 6 in. draught. They placement, 405 ft. long, 75 ft. 6 yi 7 lf* li |fi@»iEl» 7' 9 HN Y /gg#

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FIG. 59.—Arrangement of Guns and Armour, H.M.S. “ King Edward VII." had a belt of Krupp steel, 7 in. thick amidships, tapering to 3 in. at bow, and two protective decks, as in the “ Canopus "; they had two barrettes, II in. thick, for four I2~in. guns, and carried twelve 6-in. Q.F. guns in 6-in. case mates on the main and upper decks; also a number of smaller guns and four submerged torpedo tubes. They were provided with 24 Belleville boilers, would develop 18,000 H.P., and attain a speed of 19 knots. Their normal coal supply was 900 tons, and they had bunker capacity for 2000 tons. Six of these ships were built, one of them, the “ Montagu, " being lost on Lundy Island in 1906. Vessels of similar type had been built abroad, but there was a tendency to provide in them a more powerful secondary armament. In 1901 France built the “ République " with eighteen 6- 5-in. guns as her secondary armament; taly laid down the “ Regina Elena, ” carrying twelve 8-in. guns as her secondary armament; and Germany the “ Braunschweig, " carrying fourteen 6-7-in. and twelve 3-4.-in. guns as her secondary armament. In 1902 the United States followed with the “ Georgia, ” carrying a secondary armament of eight 8-in. and had bunker space for 2200 tons; they were afterwards fitted to burn oil as well as coal in their boilers, the double bottom compartments having been adapted for the stowage of oil in bulk. The line of development, as traced above, may be taken to begin with the “ Collingwood ” and to run through the “ Admiral” class, the “ Nile ” and “ Trafalgar, ” the “ Royal Sovereign ” class, the “ Majestic” class, and the “Formidable” class to the “ London ” class, the most powerful type of warship constructed for the British navy up to the end of the 19th century. Branching off from this line, at a time when battleships became much heavier (the “ Royal Sovereign ” class were of 2zoo tons more displacement than the “ Nile ” and “ Trafalgar ”), a series of smaller, faster, and more lightly armed and armoured battleships than the series terminating with the “London” class was also built. These began with the “Barfleur” and “Centurion, ” which, though contemporary with the “Royal Sovereign” l and twelve 6-in. guns, while two English vessels, the “ Libertad " and “ Independencia, " laid down for Chile, carried no less than fourteen 7-5-in. guns as their secondary armament! In 1902 the “ King Edward VII.” (fig. 58, Plate XlV.), the last battleship for which Sir V/illiam White was responsible, was laid down, carrying four 12-in. guns. with a secondary armament of four 9-2-in. and ten 6-in. guns. She may be considered as an enlarged “ Duncan, " with the main-deck guns increased from eight to ten in number and enclosed in a battery having sides and ends protected by 7-in. armour, with the backs of the case mates replaced by splinter bulkheads 1 to 2 in. in thickness, and with the four 6-in. gunsin case mates on the upper deck replaced by four 45-calibre 9~2-in. guns, protected by enclosed revolving armour shields. The T u l

| I I I or llm .1 yggggiggggllllll m|||u|m||| l'&ll{Ill l, , ili|||||i, i, ......, ., ., ....'.e"um|uumuu|uumuuu|uum|nnunJ. |mml|||mm|nmnumu|1|l||u |||u.wm|1nnumum|||u||||u:|1x»mnul can - A I I ~..... .... .... .—.. ., I I | ! |||||| 4 “ -lll class, were of 1440 tons less displacement; they were followed by the “ Renown, ” the “ Canopus” and the “ Duncan ” class. The six ships of the “ Canopus " class may be regarded as a development of the " Renown.” Begun in 1896, they were 12,950 tons in disce. 5 2-.9~2 % 2-$2 £ o Qgo A 3- - .,7'°r'°" 8, 8. . FIG.61.-Arrangement of Guns and Armour, H.M.S. “ Lord Nelson.” placement, 390 ft. long, 74ft. eam, and 26 ft. draught. They had a 6-in. Harveyized belt, 14 ft. broad and 195 ft. long; two protective decks (anticipating the “ Formidable " in this respect); and two 12-in. barrettes, each carrying two wire-wound 12-in. guns, against the “ Renown's ” 10-in. They also carried twelve 0-in. guns in 5-in. case mates, ten 12-pdrs., a number of smaller and machine guns, and four submerged torpedo tubes. They were the first battleships of the British navy to be fitted with water-tube xxiv. 20 general arrangements of the guns and armour are shown in fig. 59.2 1 These two vessels were afterwards purchased by the British government and became the “ Swiftsure ” and “ Triumph " (fig. 69. Plate XVIII.). 2 The gun and armour diagrams and many particulars of modern vessels are taken by permission from Brasseyks Naval Annual.