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“ Dreadnoughts, " was laid down at Portsmouth,1 and the following vessels of the group (the “ T hunderer, ” “ Monarch ” and “ Conqueror ”) were ordered to be built in the private yards of the Thames Iron Works, Sir W. G. Armstrong & Co. on the Tyne, and Beardmore & Co. on the Clyde a few weeks

broadside. Their displacement had been reached by five steps from that of the “King Edward VII.” and “Lord Nelson, ”—the first of 1400 tons, 85%, the next three each of about 700 tons, say 4%; and the last of 2500 tons, or I2% %. The first of these increases, though not without precedent in l

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I, . ., . . .;. .. ... . . . . 53..- . .0 l. . ....§ “ FIG.63.*AI'I'31'1g€1Tl€Ilt of Guns and Armoun. H.M.S. “ Dreadnought. later. In these vessels there is a considerable increase in displacement, amounting to 2500 tons or I2%% beyond that reached in the preceding group, their displacement being 22,500 tons on a length of 545 ft. between perpendiculars. The additional displacement has allowed the whole of the turrets to be placed on the middle line, the side armour to be raised to the upper deck, and heavier guns to be carried.

Great Britain thus had in 1910 fourteen “ Dreadnoughts ” built and building, not including the “Dreadnought ” cruisers described later on under cruisers.

In the first seven vessels—“ Dreadnought, ” “ Bellerophon, ” “ Temeraire, ” “ Superb, ” “ St Vincent, ” “ Collingwood ” and “ Vanguard ”-six 12-in. guns could fire directly ahead and six the British navy, ” elicited some hostile criticism. Its justification lay in the fact that all the world followed the lead. The 22,500 tons of the “ Orion?' was not acceptable in 1904, but.her design was practically that advocated by Lord Fisher when he took office as First Sea Lord in October 1904 after certain modifications had been made as the result of investigations at the Admiralty. .

The general growth of the fleets of British and foreign powers is dealt with in the article NAVY. Some details may be given here of foreign battleships. ' .

United States.-In 1889 the “ Texas, " designed by the late Mr William ]0hn, was laid down. On a displacement of 6315 tons she carried an armament of two 12-in. and six 6-in. guns at a speed of 17 knots#-the I2-in. guns being mounted in two turrets' placed TABLE XV.-Particulars of British Battleship.: of Dreadnought Type. at

Hull. Machinery.

  • - = ' 4 Q
1 . . . B - ' f Ke
.e *' ° LD 2 0 ° ”

Vexel. E .§ -£15 Q F1-1° Q g, E an ~ Armament. >~..E' § If M 3 § , = 5 g E' -3 3 U, ig Engines. Boilers. § Eg - ». - 0

Q 2 3 Q 0 3-3:=: ~ CQ gi

Feet. Feet. Feet. Tons. Knots. . g 5

Dreadnought 1906 Steel. 490.0 82.0 26; 17,900 21.6 23,000 4 ParsonsTurbines. Babcock & Wilcox IO*l 2' 24—12pr. Barbettes.,699, go0 Bellerophon 1907, ,, 490.0 82.0 27.0 18,600 21.8 23,000, ,, ,, ,, , IO-I2' 16-4', ,,649,042 Temeraire 1907, , 490.0 82.0 27.0 18,600 22.07 23,000, ,, , Yarrow large tube IO*I2 I6*4', ,,627,655 Superb . 1907, , 4Q0.0 82.0 27.0 18,600 21-5 23,000, ,, , Babcock & Wilcox 10-12 16-4',544,146 St. Vincent . 1908, , 500.0 84.0 27.0 19,250 21.7 24,500, ,, ,, ,', ,» I0**I2 20-4',6l2,810 Collingwood 1908, , 500.0 84.0 27.0 19,250 21.5 24,500, ,, , Yarrow large tube I0-'IZ 20-4',589,240 Vanguard 1909 ', , 500.0 84.0 27.0 19,250 22.1 24,500, ,, , Babcock &'Wilcox 10-12 20-4',465,381 Ne tune . 1909, , 510.0 85.0 27.0 20,000 21.01 25,000, ,, ,, Yarrow large tube Io-12 16-4' .539f24° Coiiassus . 1910, , 510.0 85.0 27.0 20,000 21.01 25,000, ,, , Babcock & Wilcox IO°~l2' 16'-°4' ., Hercules . 1910, , 510.0 85.0 27.0 20,000 21.01 25,000, ,, , Yarrow large tube IO-'I2' I6'°'4' IO . . 1 Estimated.

directly astern, and eight could 'dre on the broadsides. In the and “ Hercules ”-six

next thre<%“ Neptune, ” “ Colossus ”

12-in. guns could hre ahead, eight could fire astern, and the whole ten could fire on either broadside. In the last four“ Orion, ” “ Thunderer, ” “ Monarch ” and “ Conqueror ”-four guns could ire ahead, four astern and the whole ten on either 1 She was launched on the 20th of August 1910. diagonally in a central citadel and protected by 12-in. armour. She was followed by the “ Maine, ” which was sunk in Havana Harbour. In 1891 the “ Indiana, " “ Massachusetts ” and “ Oregon ” were laid down, of 10,288 tons displacement and 16 knots speed, protected by 18-in. belt armour and armed with four 13-in. and eight 8-in. 2 From the “Trafalgar ” to the “ Royal Sovereign, " and from the 'f Duncan " to the “King Edward V I., " increases in each case

of 17 % were accepted. V, >