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904
[WAR VESSELS
SHIP


“ Dreadnought, " but laid down 2% years earlier; she carries four 12-in. and fourteen 8-in. guns as well as twelve 4-7-in. guns arranged as shown in fig. 75, from which it will be seen that an attempt was made to protect almost the whole of the vessel above water with armour varying from 8% in. to 3 in. in thickness. Engines of 17,600 I.H.P. are provided for 18 knots speed. A sister vessel, “ Andrei Pervoz-4-7-in. guns and armoured with 10-in. to 4-in. armour. These were followed by the “ Regina Margherita, ” laid down in 1898, and the “ Benedetto Brin, " laid down in 1899, two vessels 0f'13,426 tons displacement and 20 knots speed, of good free board, carrying an armament similar to that of the “ Duncan " and in addition four 8-in. guns; the 12-in. guns are protected by 10-in. armour, the 6-in. guns and the ship's sides by 6-in. armour

" with 3-in. side plating forward

and aft. Four very

notable vessels were next

laid down-the “ Regina

Elena” (lig. 76, Plate

a" XVII.) and “Vittorio

6. ' Ziiilii.| Emanuele III.” in 1901,

ra vz' " 1: 1. vw, ?"'- nd th U N ll H d mm" fllminilw Fill-"Em-!!!!!!!!ii!ll"".liiiiiiililifiiliiiiiiiiiiiiilliiiiggiiiiiiiliiliiiiill|m¢ |f!!!'!!I*I!!!!!' .|iiiI |»H1!iin!!!!" - ii Romag in igggl, ezgh llllllIllll'l|l||Il||lllll|!lIlI||llllllllllllllllllilllllllllllll||Il||ll|Il§ |||l||llll|lll|IIllIlilIIII!lllllIIllllllllllllllllllllllllllll lllII|'Illllllllllllllllllllll'llllllllllllllllllll»l|I|Il||I||IIIIl||lll||l.II1IllIIIIIIllllllllsllllllllllllll-3%!llllligmwinlullunnummin|um||i||||||||||||a|1i;l11iii5un1u|||nmu1gnmmnuunmumsuI|||1n|11||||11||n|nu|Im|mid;||sri|1|Imnu||m|||u|u||11|||1111nI|In|Im1|nu||1|1nunu|13|1|1111|||1|||n|||1!|n1!!}, qL%£l. 0 H 6 11 C1 1 S P 1 21 C S YQ ff nt Of wuiii miu|iiiWlll-i"'»lpnn»|»null|'il'r?i'n'ii'llIlillIIll11|1111|I1Iill%'illiilllilllililliillilllllllllillllllIllilllllliiIIII!liilhilIlilIlillllilllllIIlllllilIlllilIIilllilWillllllliilllllllllI1iii»wi|ii1'i'¢fl3llliliiiiiiii|ill'Jlli>~ 12'-25 tons' carrymg two

11mlm..umm-||¢.»»..||...-il-fi |-~~»ll. iiiiiiim-111.-.¢.»-...»||u||mm »u»|»u»|im|»|~|~u»¢|min niiiimuu iuiimmniiniuiiinimimnimiiiimiiiiiiiu »— T - =.-;.= ¢/ I2-|n and twelve 8-111

" A ~ "Z" ' guns in turrets, as well as

4'7”4'7'4'7" 4' ”

4-1" 7 4 1

<lll/

a large number of small

quick-liring guns; their

machinery of 20,000 I.H.P.

is provided for a speed of

j-/ ~ 22 knots; their hulls are

8" cut down, giving reduced

12” 12” frigeboaéd as compareddwiah

W- - » ~ < 0 . . .@— . . 1- a >- “ ene etto Brin, ” an t e G-F ® Q Q hulls anfi hrriachinery are

f' bui t as ig t y as possible.

9 BQ W 8 For several years no new

QR” design was adopted, but

8' 8, 3 ' in 1909 the “Dante

FIG. 75.-Arrangement of Guns and Armour of “ vanni, " was also laid down in 1903, but neither vessel was completed in time to take part in the war. In 1909 four vessels were laid down, which were again larger than any then building for any other power, viz. the “ Sevastopol, " “ Petr0pavl0vsk, " “ Gangut " and “ Poltava, " of 23,000 tons displacement, with Parsons turbines of 42,000 H.P. for 23 knots speed, 600 ft. long, S9 ft. beam, 27 ft. 3 in. draught, protected by I1-in. armour, armed with twelve 12-in. and sixteen 4-7-in. guns, the 12-in. guns being carried in four threegun turrets p aced at considerable distances apart on the middle line. Italy.-The Italian navy has always contained interesting vessels embodying the independent thought and skill of her own designers. The “ Duilio, ” launched in 1876, and the “ Dandolo, " launched in 1878, were 340 ft. in length, 10,400 tons displacement, and carried four 100-ton M.L. rifled guns, mounted in two turrets and capable of penetrating 22»7 in. of iron at 1000 yds. They had a central citadel 107 ft. in length, protected

by 21% in. of steel

Alighieri " was laid down,

of 18,700 tons displacement,

an increase of 50%

over that of the preceding vessels. 'She was reported to be 492 ft. long, 79 ft. beam, carrying twelve I2-in., eighteen 4 7-in. and sixteen 3-in. guns, turbines of 30,000 H.P. being provided for a speed of 23 knots, and side armour fitted 9 in. thick amidships tapering t0'6 in. forward and 4% in. aft. Three later vessels, the “ Conte di Cavour, " “ Giulio Cesare ” and “ Leonardo da Vinci, ” are of 22,000 tons, 35,000 H.P., 23 knots, and carry thirteen 12-inch guns.

Austria.-Until quite recently Austria has made no attempt to maintain battleships of the first class. Three small battleships, the “ Monarch, " “ Budapest" and “ Wien, ” were laid down in 1893-1894, of 5550 tons displacement and 17% knots speed, carrying four 9-4-in., six 6-in. and twelve 3-pdr. guns, with armour 10% in. to 4 in. in thickness. In 1899 three larger vessels, the "Habsburg '- (fig. 77, Plate XVII.), "Arpad" and “Baben-Imperator Pavel.”

armour, with 18-in. armour

on the turrets. Their engines

were of 7900 I.H.P., giving

a speed of 15 knots. In the

“ Italia " and “ Lepanto, " ., ,

launched in 1880 and 1883 L

respectively, side armour was

dispensed with, a curved 3-in. I

armour deck, 'with its iides D.

5% ft. be ow the water- ine, . ., 1 I Ybeing fitted from .Stem t° cilllllllil llll, ,..u|n um |l|%m|.l'"'llL,2"I'¢l||lI Stem, with armour glacls pro- iiiuiliiiiinliiilinunzilliunlsmnlu1:dilliliiliiii§ M¥liiii'iiri|i°§ i1'illii||' ff1'|i1ii11'§ 3:iiiilaiiliiirmlwtllillllwlllilllQ ~ h f 1 0 en mxlllnmilnnilamaglllluulmgllilwnl|uI|||q|nll|q|l||n1|1|rlnlpllgmlaglul Ilplligunluluqniugg|u[a@||||||| |z(m|gr11|51}||||nnml|inummun||||nn|mr|mL».4||1ll|i} t€CU0fl to Y 6 UUUC D 1...-...». ..... u»», »<»~-»-m.%!£g1, . JEH|', .lI|£l.l.J{'.l..I!|' 'lu;=1rdiAA.:1l:sr1.uM1|v1.1.|. |. . .n.|. m1nm.lp'|% .sz.|e|.1., :mn|:1 ., ,..|..i., .ui||mm|||mum|||||||||m||n|||||||uum|1|||1|lu. ings' &c ' in this deck; they -;-:E '~-~;n»mnu.mmnmum» mi 1 mumuuummnuuuimu |||u|u||'uu IllllmllhllllfllllllIIlIIllIBl|il|l|| IllllllllllllllltlllllhlllllllillllIllIIII[IIIIllllllIIllIllllIllI||ll|llllll|lffllllllllllllllllllllll. 1? carried four 100-ton breech- -' 'loading

guns mounted in two I ' . r

barrettes arranged so as to

permit all four guns to fire,

ahead, astern or on either g.4' 4 4,

broadside asin “ Inllexible ”; ~ A O 1 94

their displacement was L .... .....:,

13,500 tons, their length ' . / . .

400 ft., and they had engines -... . 12, /' A l2 , i, of 18,000 I H.P. designed to Q j

ive a speed of 18 knots.

They were followed by three .;; ' i'*

of the “ Andrea Doria ” class

of 11,000 tons, launched in

1884 and 1885, armed with

four IOS-(OH breech-loaders,

and protected by an 18-in.

belt of compound armour; and by the “ Re Umberto, ” “S1cilia” and “ Sardegna ” of 13,250 tons, launched 1888 to 1891, and armed with four 67-ton B.L. guns having a penetration of 27 in. of iron at 1000 yds. In 1897 Italy launched the second-class battleships " Ammiraglio di Saint Bon ” and the “ Emanuele Filiberto ” of 9800 tons and 18 knots speed, carrying four 10-in., eight 6-in. and eight 4' 4" 4

FIG. 78.-Arrangement of Guns and Armour of Austrian “ Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand." berg, " were begun, of 8340 tons displacement and 18 knots speed, carrying three 9-4-in., twelve 6-in. and several smaller Q.F. guns and well armoured. In 1901 it was decided to build the “ Erzherzog Karl Friedrich ” and “ Ferdinand Max, ” of 10,600 tons and 19 knots, carrying four 9-4-in. and small Q.F. guns as in the

“ Monarch, " but with the secondary armament increased to twelv