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Tor edo-boat Deszroyers were primarily, as their name implies, inten ed to meet and destroy torpedo-boats, their larger size, greater coal capacity, heavier armament, and higher speed enabling t em to overtake such boats before they could complete their attack; but it soon became evident that these additional owers also enabled the destroyer to perform the duties of the torpedio-boat more efficiently than the boat herself, and with the advent of the destroyer the production of the smaller boat declined.

The pioneers of this type of vessel were the “ Darin, ” “ Decoy, ” “ Havock ” and “ Hornet, ” the construction of whici was entered upon in July 1892, the two first-named at Messrs Thornycroft's and the other two at Messrs Yarrow's. They were thus contemporary with the “ Dryads, " the last of the tor edo gunboats. The success of these four vessels was followed with great interest, and in the following year (1893) six others were begun. One of these, the “ Boxer, " built by Thornycroft, attained a speed of 29'2 knots. A much greater number of destroyers (32 in all), nearly the whole of which were of 27 knots speed, were laid down in 1894. The succeeding year (IS95) saw a great advance in size, power and speed, thirteen destroyers being laid down, for each of which the contract speed was 30 knots. Similar vessels were constructed by various firms in England for foreign powers, and abroad by Messrs Schichau in Germany and M. Normand in France; the “ Sokol ” being constructed by Messrs Yarrow for the Russian navy. Over sixty destroyers of the 30-knot type were built for the British navy between 1895 and 1905, and in onl three vessels with reciprocating engines-the “ Albatross, " the “lE¥xpress, ” and the “ Arab ”-were speeds exceeding 30 knots contracted for. In 1896 an attempt was made to realize greater speeds, but it was found that the ower and cost necessary for the addition of a few knots were disproportionate to the value of the results obtained, and the attempt was not followed by any general increase of speed above 30 to 31 knots in destroyers fitted with reciprocating engines. The general appearance of a typical destroyer of this period is shown by fig. 516 (Plate XXVL), which represents the “ Albatross " at full spee

Particulars of destroyers will be found in Table XIX. Experience with the marine steam turbine, the invention of the Hon. C. A. Parsons, dates only from the time of the “ Turbinia " (fig. 117, Plate XXV.), which made her successful trials in 1898 after much investigation on the part of the inventor. The turbine machinery consisted of three separate turbines directly coupled to three screw shafts and working in series, one turbine being high engines approaching 1200 and the power being estimated at about 12,000 H.P. At the time of their completion these were the fastest vessels of any type afloat, but both were unfortunately lost at sea, the “Viper” after a very short period of service being run upon the Renouquet Rock in the Channel Islands, and the “Cobra” beinlg lost at sea on her first voyage after leaving the contractor's wor s.

The results attained by these vessels led the British Admiralty to make further experiments with this type of machinery. The “ Velox, " which had been launched in 1902, was purchased from the Parsons Company, and two experimental vessels were ordered from Messrs Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., both 220 ft. long, about 590 tons displacement"and with similar boilers. Both vessels were launched in 1903. One, the “ Eden, " was fitted with Parsons turbines, and reached 26-1 knots on trial; the other, the “ Waveney, " with reciprocating engines, reached 25-6 knots on trial; the “ Wavene y ” had twin screws; the “ Eden " had six screws, two on each 0 three shafts, and at high speed showed a great saving in coal consumption.

Experience with the 3 0-knot boats led to a decision to order boats of stouter build and etter sea-keeping qualities. In them the turtle back forward was replaced by a loft forecastle, and it was laid down that the trials should be run with the boats more heavily loaded and more closely approaching their ordinary loaded condition on service. These chan es were embodied in the “ River ” class, in which a trial speed of 25% knots under the modified conditions was provided for.

In 1302-1904 thirty-four destroyers of the “ River ” class were ordere, of the following dimensions, &c.: length 220 to 230 ft., breadth 23% to 24 ft., mean load draught 8 ft. 2 in. to 8 ft. 8 in., displacement 540 to 590 tons, l.H.P. 7000 to 7500, speed 25% knots. The 1904 Committee on Designs recommended two new types of destroyers called “ocean-going" and “coastal " respectively, - and also one experimental vessel of the hi hest speed obtainable, all to be fitted with Parsons turbines, an§ to use oil only for fuel. The ocean-going destroyers include five of 33 knots and the special destroyer of 35 knots named the “ Swift " (fig. 118), built by Messrs Laird & Co. She was the largest destroyer afloat in 1910. Fig. 119 (Plate XXVI.) gives a view of this vessel.

From 1906 to 1908 eight ocean-goinlg destroyers of, 33 knots of the “ Tribal ” class were ordered, ranging rom 970 to 1045 tons displacement and armed with two 4-in. guns and two 18-in. torpedo tubes. In 1908-1909 sixteen ocean-going destroyers of the “ Beagle " class TABLE XIX.-Particulars of Torpedo-boat Destroyers. Principal Dimensions, &c. Q

Vessel s Name. Country. Where Built, pi é E g -éa été E § 'E Speed Armament, &c. as N 0 E .fi 5:vm O

0.2 A “i 0 5 zz, J

1 Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Tons. Knots.

Daring . Great Britain Messrs Thomycroft, London. 1893 185 o IQ 0 6 6 275 2 4,200 27.0 I*I2 pdr., 3-6 pdrs., 3 tubes. Swordfish, , Armstrong, Whitworth, Elswick. 189 5 200 0 IQ 0 6 6 330 2 4,500 27.6 I*-I2 pdr., 5-6 pdrs., 2 tubes. Sokcl . Russia . Messrs Yarrow, London. 1895 190 0 18 6 7 0 240 2 4,400 29.7 I°*l2 pdr., 8 others, 2 tubes. Corricntes Argentina . Messrs Yarrow, London. 1896 190 0 19 6 7 4 280 2 4,000 27.4 I-14 pdr., 2 tubes. Chamois Great Britain Messrs Palmer. 1896 215 0 20 9 7 3 360 2 6,200 30.0 1-12 pdr., 5-6 pdrs., 2 tubes. Express, , Messrs Laird Bros. 1897 235 0 22 0 9 0 46 5 2 9,250 5I.0 I-12 pdr., 5-6 pdrs., 2 tubes. Gipsy, , Messrs Fairfield. 1897 227 6 22 0 9 0 380 2 6,300 30.0 1~12§ dr., 5-6 pdrs., 2 tubes. Turbinia, , Hon. C. A. Parsons. 1897 100 0 9 0 3 o 44; 3 2,100 32.75 Nil. ' xpenmenlal boat. Albatross, , Messrs Thornycroft, London. 1898 221 6 ZI 3 8 6 430 2 7,500 31. 5 I*I2 pdr., 5-6 pdrs., 2 tubes. Cobra., , Armstrong, Whitworth, Elswick. 1899 210 0 21 0 6 9 350 8 12,000 34.0 1-12 pdr., 5-6 pdrs., 2 Hotchkiss, 2 tubes Bailey . United States Morris Heights. 1899 205 0 IQ 0 6 0 280 2 5,600 30.0 4-6 pdrs., 2. tubes. Lawrence, , Weymouth, Mass. 1900 242 3 22' 3 6 2 400 2 8,400 30.0 2'-I4 pdrs., 5-6 pdrs., 2 tubes. Derwent Great Britain Messrs Hawthom, Leslie. 1904 220 0 23 6 8 6 555 2 7,000 25.5 4*'I3 pdrS». 2 tubes. f Swift ., , Messrs Cammell, Laird. 1907 345 0 34 2 12 0 ISOO 4 30,000 35.0 4-4”, 2 tubes. Tartar ., , Messrs Thornycroft, London. 1907 270 0 26 0 9 1 870 3 14,500 33.0 3*'I2 pdrs., 2 tubes. Para Brazil Messrs Yarrow, London. 1908 240 0 23 7 IO 0 550 2 8,000 27.5 2*4, ”, 4-3 pdrs., 2 tubes. Zulu . Great Britain Messrs Hawthorn, Leslie. 1909 280 o 27 0 8 10 1000 3 15,500 33.0 2'-4'/, 2 tubes. Beagle, , Messrs J. Brown. 1909 269 0 26 7 8 3 860 3 12,500 27.0 I*4”, 3*12 pdrs., 2 tubes. S 167 - GCFNHHY Elbing. 1909 . . . . . . 607 . . 12,000 30.0 2-24 pdrs., 2 machine, 3 tubes. Smith . United States Philadelphia. 1909 289 0 26 0 8 0 700 3 10,000 28.35 S*I4 Pdrs., 2 madline. 3 Y-11545-Mameluck Fl'3.X1CC . . Nantes. 1909 210 7 2I 9 IO 4 405 3 7,750 28.0 6-9 pdrs., 3 tubes. San Luis Argentma Messrs Cammell, Laird. 1910 285 0 28 0 9 0 960 2 20,000 32.0 4-4”, 4 tubes. pressure, one intermediate and one low ressure Each screw shaft were ordered, of 27 knots speed,

coal being used as the fuel instead

D ' »

at first carried three propellers, the total number of propellers thus being nine; the weig t of main engines was approximately 3 tons I3 cwt., and the total weight of machinery and boiler, screws and shafting, tanks, &c., 22 tons. The boilers were of the water-tube type, with a working pressure of 225 lb per square inch. The “ Turbinia " was followed by the “ Cobra ” and “ Viper " torpedo-boat destroyers. The machinery of these boats consisted of two sets, one on each side of the ship; each set comprised two turbines, had two expansions, and drove two shafts (making four shafts in all). The outer shaft on each side was driven by a high-pressure turbine, from which the steam passed to a low pressure turbine on the inner shaft and thence to the condenser; on the inner shaft also was a small turbine, added for going astern, the Parsons st eam turbine not being adapted for reversal. I

Steam was supplied by water-tube boilers of the express type. These, vessels attained a speed of upwards of 34 knots, the revolutions of the . of oil as in the preceding classes. In 1909-1910 twenty more ocean-going destroyers of the “ Ac0rn" class, designed by Sir Philip Watts, were laid down; in these oil was again adopted for fuel and a speed of 29 knots obtained. These vessels are of 780 tons displacement, 240 ft. long, 25% ft. beam, 7% ft. draught, 13,500 turbine H.P., and carry two 4-in., four 12-pdr. guns and two 21-in. torpedo tubes. The “ Acorn, " “ Alarm " and “ Brisk " are provided with Brown-Curtis turbines, all the others with Parsons turbines. The navy estimates for 1910 provided for laying down twenty-three destroyers. The three Austral1an destroyers of the “ Paramatta ” class were designed by Professor Biles, and are of 700 tons displacement and 28 knots speed.

While the idea of the torpedo-boat destroyer originated in Qreat Britain, and the first boats of the type were built for the British navy, foreign powers were not slow in availing themselves of the

results obtained, and large numbers of torpedo-boat destroyers have