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40 INTRODUCTION.

glowed the perfervidum ingcnium Scotorum as it has glowed in few, owned that " the Union was one of Scotland's chief blessings," though it was due to Wallace and to men like him "that it was not the chief curse."

It must never be forgotten that in this Union England was no less blessed than Scotland ; that if she gave wealth to Scotland, Scotland nobly repaid the gift in men. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the English stock had been quickened and strengthened and ennobled by fugitives seeking refuge on her shores from the persecutions of priests and kings, which passed over the coward and the base, and fell only on the brave and the upright. To the Fleming and the Huguenot was now added the Scot. In philosophy, in history, in law, in science, in poetry, in romance, in the arts of life, in trade, in government, in war, in the spread of our dominions, in the consolidation of our Empire, glorious has been the part which Scotland has played. Her poet's prayer has been answered, and in " bright succession " have been raised men to adorn and guard not only herself but the country which belongs to Englishmen and Scotchmen alike. Little of this was seen, still less foreseen by Johnson. The change which was going on in Scotland was rapid and conspicuous ; the change which she was working outside her borders was slow, and as yet almost imperceptible. What was seen raised not admiration, but jealousy of the vigorous race which was everywhere so rapidly " making its way to employment, riches, and distinction." That Johnson should exult in the good which Scotland had derived from England through the Union was natural. Scarcely less natural that he should point out how much remained to be done before the Scotch attained the English level, not only in the comforts and refinements, but even in the decencies of life. One great peculiarity in their civili- zation struck him deeply. " They had attained the liberal without the manual arts, and excelled in ornamental knowledge while they wanted the conveniences of common life." : Even the peasantry were able to dispute with wonderful sagacity upon the articles of their faith, though they were content to live in huts which had not a single chimney to carry off the smoke. 3 Wesley, each time that he crossed the Borders, found a far harder task awaiting him than when he was upbraiding, denouncing, and exhorting an English

1 Past and Present (ed. 1858), p. 80. * Works, ix. 23.

3 Humphry Clinker, iii. 83.

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