Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/134

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 [d 2. The secondary form זוּ occurs only in poetic style, and mostly for the relative, like our that for who [see Lexicon, s. v.]. Like אֲשֶׁר (§ 36), it serves for all numbers and genders.

 [e Rem. 1. This pronoun takes the article (הַזֶּה, הַזֹּאת, הָאֵ֫לֶּה, הָאֵל) according to the same rule as adjectives, see § 126 u; e.g. הָאִישׁ הַזֶּה this man, but זֶה הָאִישׁ this is the man.

 [f 2. Rarer secondary forms, with strengthened demonstrative force, are הַלָּזֶה Gn 2465, 3719; הַלֵּ֫זוּ fem. Ez 3635; and shortened הַלָּז, sometimes masc., as in Ju 620, 1 S 1726, 2 K 2317, Zc 28, Dn 816, sometimes fem., 2 K 425: cf. 1 S 141 [and 2019 LXX; see Commentaries and Kittel].

 [g 3. The personal pronouns of the 3rd person also often have a demonstrative sense, see § 136.

§35. The Article.

J. Barth, ‘Der heb. u. der aram. Artikel,’ in Sprachwiss. Untersuch. zum Semit., Lpz. 1907, p. 47 ff.

 [a 1. The article, which is by nature a kind of demonstrative pronoun, never appears in Hebrew as an independent word, but always in closest connexion with the word which is defined by it. It usually takes the form הַ‌ּ, with ă and a strengthening of the next consonant, e.g. הַשֶּׁ֫מֶשׁ the sun, הַיְאֹר the river, הַֽלְוִיִּם the Levites (according to § 20 m for הַיְּאֹר, הַלְּוִיִּם).

 [b Rem. With regard to the Dageš in יְ after the article, the rule is, that it is inserted when a ה or ע follows the יְ e.g. הַיְּהוּדִים the Jews, הַיְּעֵפִים the weary (כַּיְעֵנִים La 43 Qe is an exception), but הַיְאוֹר, הַיְלָדִים, הַיְסוֹד, &c. Dageš forte also stands after the article in the prefix מְ‍ in certain nouns and in the participles Piʿēl and Puʿal (see § 52 c) before ה, ע and ר, except when the guttural (or ר) has under it a short vowel in a sharpened syllable; thus הַמְּהוּמָה Ez 225, הַמְּעָרָה the cave, בַּמְּרֵעִים ψ 371 (cf. Jb 3840, 1 Ch 441); but הַֽמְהַלֵּךְ ψ 1043 (Ec 415, 2 Ch 2312; before עַ ψ 1034); הַֽמְעֻשָּׁקָה Is 2312; הַֽמְרַגְּלִים Jos 622. Before letters other than gutturals this מְ remains without Dageš, according to § 20 m.

 [c 2. When the article stands before a guttural, which (according to § 22 b) cannot properly be strengthened, the following cases arise, according to the character of the guttural (cf. § 27 q).

(1) In the case of the weakest guttural, א, and also with ר (§ 22 c and q), the strengthening is altogether omitted. Consequently, the Pathaḥ of the article (since it stands in an open syllable) is always lengthened to Qameṣ; e.g. הָאָב the father, הָֽאַחֵר the other, הָאֵם the mother, הָאִישׁ the man, הָאוֹר the light, הָֽאֱלֹהִים ὁ θεός, הָרֶ֫גֶל the foot, הָרֹאשׁ the head, הָֽרָשָׁע the wicked.

 [d So also הָֽשְׁפוֹת Neh 313, because syncopated from הָֽאַשְׁפּוֹת (cf. verse 14 and Baer on the passage); הָֽאזִקִּים (as in Nu 114, Ju 941, 2 S 2333, with the א