Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/231

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after the manner of verbs ל״א); in the imperfect Hiphʿîl יַשִּׁי ψ 5516 Kethîbh; יָנִי ψ 1415; אָבִי 1 K 2119, Mi 115; in the infinitive, Jer 3235; in the participle, 2 S 52, 1 K 2121, Jer 1915, 3916, all in Kethîbh (מֵבִי, always before א, hence perhaps only a scribal error).

 [74l]  5. In the jussive, imperfect consecutive, and imperative Hiphʿîl a number of cases occur with î in the final syllable; cf. יַשִּׁא Is 3614 (in the parallel passages 2 K 1829, 2 Ch 3215 יִשִּׁיא); וַיָּבִיא Neh 82 (before ע); וַיַּֽחֲטִא 2 K 2111 (cf. 1 K 162, 2122); וַתַּתְבִּא 2 K 629; וַיּוֹצִא Dt 420, 2 K 1112, ψ 7816, 10543; imperative הָבִיא Jer 1718; הוֹצִיא Is 438 (in both cases before ע). If the tradition be correct (which at least in the defectively written forms appears very doubtful) the retention of the î is to be attributed to the open syllable; while in the closed syllable of the 3rd sing. masc. and fem., and the 2nd sing. masc. after ו consecutive, the î is always reduced to ē. In the examples before ע considerations of euphony may also have had some influence (cf. §75hh).—In Ez 403, Baer reads with the Western school וַיָּבֵיא, while the Orientals read in the Kethîbh ויבוא, and in the Qe וַיָּבֵא.

On the transition of verbs ל״א to forms of ל״ה see §75nn.

§75. Verbs ל״ה, e.g. גָּלָה to reveal. Paradigm P.

Brockelmann, Semit. Sprachwiss., p. 149 ff.; Grundriss, p. 618 ff.—G. R. Berry, ‘Original Waw in ל״ה verbs’ in AJSL. xx. 256 f.

 [75a]  These verbs, like the verbs פ״י (§§69, 70), belong to two different classes, viz. those originally ל״ו and those originally ל״י,[1] which in Arabic, and even more in Ethiopic, are still clearly distinguished. In Hebrew, instead of the original ו or י at the end of the word, a ה always appears (except in the ptcp. pass. Qal) as a purely orthographic indication of a final vowel (§23k); hence both classes are called ל״ה, e.g. גָּלָה for גָּלַי he has revealed; שָׁלָה for שָׁלֵו he has rested. By far the greater number of these verbs are, however, treated as originally ל״י; only isolated forms occur of verbs ל״ו.

 [74bשָׁלָה to be at rest may be recognized as originally ל״ו, in the forms in which the Wāw appears as a strong consonant, cf. 1st sing. perfect Qal שָׁלַ֫וְתִּי Jb 326, the participle שָׁלֵו and the derivative שַׁלְוָה rest; on the other hand the imperfect is יִשְׁלָ֫יוּ. (with Yôdh). In עָנָה (Arab. עני) to answer, and עָנָה (Arab. ענו)[2] to be afflicted, are to be seen two verbs originally distinct, which have been assimilated in Hebrew (see the Lexicon, s. v. עָנָה).

  1. According to Wellheusen, ‘Ueber einige Arten schwacher Verbs‘ in his Skizzen, vi. p. 255 ff., the ל״ה verbs, apart from some true ל״ו and some probable ל״י, are to be regarded as originally biliteral. To compensate for their arrested development they lengthened the vowel after the 2nd radical, as the ע״ו verbs did after the 1st radical. But although there is much to be said for this view, it fails to explain pausal forms like חָסָ֫יָה (see u). It seems impossible that these should all be late formations.
  2. In the Mêšaʿ inscription, line 5, ויענו and he oppressed occurs as 3rd sing. masc. imperfect Piʿēl, and in line 6, אענו I will oppress as 1st sing.