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Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/241

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Jer 384; יְשֻׁנֶּא Ec 81: in their vowels, אָתָ֫נוּ Jer 322; יִקְרָה Dn 1014; תִּכְלָה 1 K 1714: in both, יִקְרָא Gn 491; cf. 424, Is 5119; תְּלָאוּם 2 S 2112 Qe; לִירוֹא 2 Ch 2615 (cf. ויראו המוראים 2 S 1124 Kethîbh); מֹֽרְאָה (participle fem. Qal) Zp 31; יַפְרִיא Ho 1315; מְסֻלָּאִים La 42.—For פֹּרֹאות (so Baer, Ez 176, cf. 318), which can only be intended for פֹּֽרְאוֹת participle fem. plur. from פָּרָא=פָּרָה, read פֹּארוֹת branches, according to Ez 315, &c.

§76. Verbs Doubly Weak.

 [76a1. In a tolerably large number of verbs two radicals are weak letters, and are consequently affected by one or other of the anomalies already described. In cases where two anomalies might occur, usage must teach whether one, or both, or neither of them, takes effect.

 [76b]  Thus e.g. from נָדַד to flee, the imperfect is יִדּוֹד in Na 37 and יִדַּד in Gn 3140 (on the analogy of verbs פ״ן); Hiphʿîl הֵנֵד (like a verb ע״ע), but the imperfect Hophʿal again יֻדַּד (as פ״ן).

2. The following are examples of difficult forms, which are derived from doubly weak verbs:

 [76c]  (a) Verbs פ״ן and ל״א (cf. § 66 and § 74), e.g. נָשָׂא to bear, imperative שָׂא (ψ 1012 נְשָׂא, of which נְסָה ψ 47 is probably only an orthographic variation); infinitive construct שְׂאֵת (for שָׂ֫אֶת; see the analogous noun-formations in §93t), also נְשׂא Is 114, 183; Gn 413 נְשׂוֹא; ψ 8910 שׂוֹא (perhaps only a scribal error); after the prefix ל always לָשֵׂאת (otherwise the contracted form only occurs in מִשֵּׂתוֹ Jb 4117, with rejection of the א); imperfect תִּשֶּׂ֫נָה for תִּשֶּׂ֫אנָה Ru 114; wholly irregular are תִּשְּׂאֶ֫ינָה Ez 2349 (so Baer after Qimḥi; textus receptus, and also the Mantua ed., and Ginsburg, תִּשֶּׂ֫אינָה) and נִשֵּׂאת 2 S 1943 as infinitive absolute Niphʿal (on the analogy of the infinitive construct Qal?); but most probably נִשּׂא is to be read, with Driver.

 [76d]  (b) Verbs פ״ן and ל״ה (cf. § 66 and § 75), as נָטָה to bow, to incline, נָכָה to smite. Hence imperfect Qal יִטֶּה, apocopated וַיֵּט (Gn 2625 וַיֶּט־) and he bowed; וַיִּז (so, probably, also Is 633 for וְיֵּז) 2 K 933 and he sprinkled (from נָזָה); perfect Hiphʿîl הִכָּה he smote, imperfect יַכֶּה, apocopated יַךְ, וַיַּךְ (even with Athnaḥ 2 K 1516; but also ten times וַיַּכֶּה), וַנַּךְ Dt 233; so also וַיַּז Lv 811.30; אַל־תַּט ψ 1414 (cf. Jb 2311); imperative הַכֵּה, apocopated הַךְ smite thou (like הַט incline, with הַטֵּה), infinitive הַכּוֹת, participle מַכֶּה; Hophʿal הֻכֶּה, participle מֻכֶּה.

(c) Verbs פ״א and ל״ה (cf.§ 68 and § 75), as אָבָה to be willing, אָפָה to bake, אָתָה to come. E.g. imperfect Qal יֹאבֶה, יֹאפֶה, plur. יֹאפוּ; וַיֵּתֵא (cf. §68h) Dt 3321 for וַיֵּאתֶה (=וַיּאֱֽתֶה); imperfect apocopated וַיַּאת Is 4125 for וַיַּאְתְּ; imperative אֵתָ֫יוּ Is 2112, 569.12 (cf. אֵפוּ bake ye, Ex 1623) for אֱתוּ, אֱתָ֫יוּ (§23h; §75u); Hiphʿîl perfect הֵתָ֫יוּ for הֵאתָ֫יוּ (הֶֽאֱתָ֫יוּ) Is 2114; imperfect apocopated וַיֹּ֫אֶל and he adjured, 1 S 1424, properly יַֽאֲלֶה (יַאְלֶה) from אָלָה, whence יָאלֶה, and, with the obscuring to ô, יֹאלָה; instead of the simple apocope (וַיּאֹל) the א which had already become